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Clinical pathology

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Abstract

Avian patients require rapid and precise diagnostic work-up as clinical findings often do not correlate with the severity of disease. Clinical pathology needs to inform individual care for pets and flock medicine, ensuring safety for public health. This chapter discusses external versus in-house laboratory diagnostics, haematology, cytology, biochemistry and electrolytes, and parasitology.

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Figures

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10.2 Checklist for sample collection during a post-mortem examination.
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10.3 Columnar portions of a centrifuged haematocrit tube.
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10.4 Wedge smear technique for blood films and opaque fluids. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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10.6 Standardized protocol for avian blood film evaluation.  Estimation according to : total number of counted cells in 20 oil immersion fields x 875 = total estimated count.  Polychromatic index according to . B = basophils; E = eosinophils; H = heterophils; HCT = haematocrit; L = lymphocytes; Leuko = leucocytes; M = monocytes; NDB = non-definable blood cells; Thr = thrombocytes.
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10.7 Granulocytes in a blood film from a chicken. Left to right: heterophil, basophil and eosinophil. The polychromatic index (PI) of the erythrocytes is 1. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.8 Granulocytes in a blood film from a chicken. Left to right: eosinophil, physiological heterophil and toxic heterophil. The polychromatic index (PI) of the erythrocytes is 1. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.9 Various blood cells. (a) Eosinophil from a peacock. (b) Eosinophil from a goose. (c) Immature granulocyte from a chicken. (d) Thrombocytes from a peacock. (e) Reactive monocyte from a chicken. (f) Reactive lymphocyte from a turkey. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.10 Erythrocytes in a blood film from a duck (species unknown). Note the left shift, hypochromasia and haemolysis. The polychromatic index (PI) of the erythrocytes is 3–4. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.15 Great tit () with a concurrent infestation with (left gametocyte) and (right gametocyte). (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.16 Formulae for different methods of total blood cell counts. (Formulae for total white blood cell counts also apply for thrombocyte counts.)
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10.18 Total red blood cell count. The diluted blood sample is placed in one half of a haemocytometer counting chamber with improved Neubauer ruling. The red blood cells present in the corner and central squares of the large central square are counted following the L rule (see text).
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10.22 Bacterial overgrowth with ≥90% Gram-negative bacteria from a pharyngeal swab taken from a fancy breed hen. (Gram stain; Courtesy of Dr Peter Wencel)
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10.23 Squash preparation technique. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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10.24 Impression smears from the liver of a broiler hen. (a) Without removal of excess blood. (b) After removal of excess blood. IBH = inclusion body hepatitis; Le = liver. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.25 Photomicrograph of the slide in Figure 10.24a . Excess blood hampers the detection of the intranuclear inclusion body right above the size bar.
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10.26 Photomicrograph of the slide in Figure 10.24b . Clear view of several prominent intranuclear polymorphic basophilic inclusion bodies suggestive of spp. (confirmed by histology).
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10.27 Squash preparation of a scraping taken from a subcutaneous mass in a fancy breed hen. Cytology revealed the mass to be a sarcoma. Note the aggregate of mesenchymal cells and the cell at the bottom of the slide showing nuclear signs of malignancy. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.29 Impression smear of lung tissue from a laying hen showing physiological respiratory epithelium. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.30 Impression smear of lung tissue from a laying hen showing pleocellular inflammation with signs of reactivity and toxicity. (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.31 Mid-gut swab from a 24-week-old laying hen showing spore-bearing cigar-shaped bacteria, suggestive of . (Wright-Giemsa stain)
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10.37 Acetate tape impressions of lice (left and right) and mites (centre) from a chicken.
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10.38 Acetate tape impression from a chicken showing the red chicken mite (). The morphologically similar northern fowl mite () has more pointed caudal ends of the dorsal and anal plates and readily visible chelicerae.
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10.39 Acetate tape impression from a chicken showing the instar of the chicken head louse ().
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10.40 Commercially available plastic vials with integrated sieve for faecal flotation.
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10.41 Large coccidial oocysts (~ 30 μm), typical for , from a mid-gut swab in a 24-week-old laying hen (same case as in Figure 10.31 ).
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10.44 Direct faecal mount from a fancy breed hen showing cestode onchospheres with hexacanth embryos within a proglottid.
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10.45 Direct faecal mount from a goose showing an egg of sp.
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10.46 (a) Direct faecal mount from a chicken showing an egg of spp. (b) Faecal flotation from a chicken showing an egg of spp.

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