1887

Rodents: dermatoses

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Abstract

Clinical signs associated with dermatological disease in rodents are similar to those in other mammal species, as are aetiological categories and diagnostic investigations. It is important to acquire full husbandry details, including environmental conditions and diet. Bedding materials are often irritant, and even if both the primary cause may contribute to a worsening of clinical signs. A medical history should also be obtained. Clinical signs of in-contact animals may be significant. Dermatoses may be associated with generalized problems. A physical examination should be performed, though it may be cursory in small species. The entire integument is examined, including the extremities. At this stage, a list of differential diagnoses should be formed, allowing the veterinary surgeon to select appropriate investigative techiniques. This chapter looks at Bacterial disease; Fungal disease; Parasitic disease; Viral disease; Environmental disease; Behavioural disease and Miscellaneous skin disease in mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, chinchillas and degus.

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Figures

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10.4 Well circumscribed area of alopecia with crusting and scale formation in a mouse. Infection with was diagnosed on fungal culture in this case. (Courtesy of Anna Meredith.)
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10.6 Severe skin excoriation following self-trauma due to pruritus associated with fur mite infection in a mouse. This animal was anaesthetized and a neck bandage applied to prevent further self-trauma. The bandage was tolerated in this case. (Courtesy of Heidi Hoefer.)
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10.7 Classical lesions associated with mite hypersensitivity and secondary trauma in a rat. Ulcerative and crusting lesions usually affect head and shoulders. Secondary bacterial dermatitis may be associated. (Courtesy of Emma Keeble.)
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10.8 Rat infested with the burrowing mite . Warty papular lesions typically occur on the pinnae and nose and the tail; and may lead to self-trauma. Diagnosis is based on skin biopsy and demonstration of the mite. (Courtesy of Anna Meredith.)
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10.9 The small skin lesion on this Roborovsky hamster’s ventrum responded to topical cleaning with dilute chlorhexidine.
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10.10 The skin lesion on this hamster’s face was due to an overgrown lower incisor, which had punctured the cheek.
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10.11 from a hamster. This mite is cigar-shaped and lives in the hair follicles, causing a dry scaly alopecia. (Original magnification X40) (Courtesy of Anna Meredith.)
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10.12 Syrian hamster with large ulcerated skin mass. Histology confirmed a poorly differentiated carcinoma, and secondary infection with was cultured. No metastases were found and the patient did well after surgical excision with wide margins. The same hamster presented a month later with several nodular skin lesions, which were surgically excised. Histology confirmed these to be pilomatrixomas.
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10.13 Nasal dermatitis in a gerbil. (Reproduced from .)
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10.14 Guinea pig with acariasis: showing hair thinning and alopecia. close up showing scale on skin.
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10.15 from a guinea pig (original magnification X40).
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10.16 Bilateral ulcerative pododermatitis in a female guinea pig. This animal had urine excoriation of the perineum secondary to cystitis. Severe vertebral spondylosis and osteoarthritis of the stifle joints were diagnosed on radiography and were likely contributory factors in the development of the pododermatitis. (Courtesy of Emma Keeble.)
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10.17 Guinea pig with cheilitis. Note the inflammation and crusting. This animal was anorectic. After cleaning lesions with dilute chlorhexidine. The condition responded to topical cleaning, along with systemic antibiotic and NSAID.
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10.18 Guinea pig with trichofolliculoma. The animal has been aseptically prepared for surgery. Cut appearance of the trichofolliculoma following excision of the mass.

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