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Dental anatomy and physiology

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Abstract

The first half of this chapter covers the development of teeth in depth, looking at odontogenesis, tooth eruption and exfoliation, differences between deciduous and permanent teeth, dental formula and eruption schedule, and age estimation. The second half of the chapter covers adult dental and oral anatomy and physiology, including standard radiographic appearance.

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2.2 (a) Approximate eruption schedule and timing (age in days) of deciduous maxillary and mandibular teeth in dogs (black = missing teeth; orange = deciduous teeth). (b) Approximate eruption (gingival emergence) schedule and timing (age in days) of permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth in dogs (black = missing teeth; orange = deciduous teeth; white = permanent teeth). (c) Approximate eruption schedule and timing (age in days) of deciduous maxillary and mandibular teeth in cats (black = missing teeth; yellow = deciduous teeth). (d) Approximate eruption (gingival emergence) schedule and timing (age in days) of permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth in cats (black = missing teeth; yellow = deciduous teeth; white = permanent teeth). (Modified from with permission from the publisher)
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2.3 Occlusal view of feline deciduous and permanent dentition based on the Modified Triadan System. (a) Deciduous right maxillary teeth. (b) Permanent left maxillary teeth. (c) Deciduous right mandibular teeth. (d) Permanent left mandibular teeth. C = canine tooth; d = deciduous tooth; l = incisor tooth; M = molar tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.4 Occlusal view of canine deciduous and permanent dentition based on the Modified Triadan System. (a) Deciduous right maxillary teeth. (b) Permanent left maxillary teeth. (c) Deciduous right mandibular teeth. (d) Permanent left mandibular teeth. Some permanent teeth have already erupted and are visible on (a) and (c). C = canine tooth; d = deciduous tooth; I = incisor tooth; M = molar tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.5 Lateral view of the right mandible in (a) a young dog with deciduous dentition and (b) an adult dog with permanent dentition. C = canine tooth; d = deciduous tooth; I = incisor tooth; M = molar tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.6 Permanent (top) and deciduous (bottom) mandibular canine teeth extracted from two related male Rhodesian Ridgebacks. The adult dog was 9 years old, and the tooth measured 6.2 cm in length. The immature dog was 4 months old, and the deciduous tooth measured 2.5 cm in length. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.7 Modified Triadan System. Complete permanent canine dentition, showing the lingual side of the mandibular teeth and the palatal side of the maxillary teeth. The numbering for the deciduous dentition is shown in yellow. C = canine tooth; d = deciduous tooth; I = incisor tooth; M = molar tooth; P = permanent tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.8 Dental anatomical terminology. (a) Maxillary dental arch. (b) Mandibular dental arch. (c) Buccal view of the right mandibular first molar tooth. Specific anatomical terms are used when describing dental structures. ‘Cranial’ and ‘caudal’, ‘dorsal’ and ‘ventral’ can be confusing terms and should not be used. The teeth on the lower jaw are the mandibular teeth, while those on the upper jaw are referred to as the maxillary teeth. Teeth are arranged in a larger maxillary and a narrower mandibular arch (green line indicates the mandibular arch). Each arch is divided into right and left quadrants (red line indicates the left maxillary quadrant). An area of a dental arch devoid of teeth is called a diastema. A large diastema exists between the maxillary third incisor tooth and the canine tooth in both dogs and cats. The surface of a tooth towards the tongue or the palate is defined as the lingual (for mandibular teeth) or palatal (for maxillary teeth) surface (light blue arrows). The portion facing the lips and cheeks is the labial or buccal surface, also defined as the vestibular surface (white arrows). The surfaces facing adjacent teeth are defined as interproximal and can be either mesial (light pink arrow) or distal (green arrow); the face of the tooth pointing towards the midline along the dental arch (the point between the right and left first incisor teeth, indicated by the light blue lines) is the mesial surface, and the opposite is the distal surface (yellow double arrows). The occlusal surface corresponds to the masticatory surface (blue interrupted line). The terms apical and coronal refer to directions towards the root apex or the crown of a tooth, respectively (interrupted double white arrow). (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.9 Tooth structure of the right mandibular first molar tooth of different middle-aged dogs. (a) Clinical aspect, buccal side. (b) Extracted tooth, buccal side. (c) Intraoral radiographic image. (d) Vertical section through the mesial root. (e) Schematic presentation. (f) Detail of (e), showing periodontal structures. AB = alveolar bone; AD = apical delta; AG = attached gingiva; AMa = alveolar margin; AMu = alveolar mucosa; APX = apex; cCR = clinical crown; Ce = cementum; CEJ = cementoenamel junction; CR = anatomical crown; D = dentine; DB = dental bulge; E = enamel; FG = free gingiva; FR = furcation; GDF = gingivodental fibres; GM = gingival margin; GS = gingival sulcus; GT = gingival tissue; JE = junctional epithelium; LD = lamina dura; MaC = mandibular canal; MGJ = mucogingival junction; NK = tooth neck; PCh = pulp chamber; PDL = periodontal ligament space; PS = pulp stone; RC = root canal; RT = anatomical root. (e,f) Drawn by David Crossley and reproduced with his permission (a, b, c, d, © Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.11 (a) Photomicrograph of the maxillary canine tooth of a dog following diaphanization, showing a non-homogeneous apical delta. (b) Photomicrograph of the maxillary canine tooth of a cat following diaphanization, showing a homogeneous apical delta. (a, Reproduced from with permission from InVet; b, Reproduced from with permission from )
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2.13 Extracted mandibular incisor tooth of a 4-month-old Rhodesian Ridgeback. The crown:root length ratio is about 1:6. CR = anatomical crown; RT = anatomical root. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.14 Left maxillary (top) and mandibular (bottom) incisor teeth of (a) a dog and (b) a cat. White arrows denote the cingulum. Yellow arrows denote the tubercle. I = incisor tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.15 Mandibular (0) and maxillary (*) teeth from a dog (left) and a cat (right). The vestibular view is shown. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.16 Mesiodistal longitudinal section of a mature maxillary canine tooth of a dog showing the pulp cavity (arrowheads) and dentinal thickness. A portion of the incisivomaxillary canal has been exposed (*). (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.17 Right maxillary (top) and mandibular (bottom) premolar teeth of (a) a dog and (b) a cat. The vestibular view is shown. PM = premolar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.18 Left maxillary fourth premolar tooth of a dog (left) and a cat (right). (a) Buccal view. (b) Palatal view. (c) Distopalatal view. D = distal root; MB = mesiobuccal root; MP = mesiopalatal root. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.19 Right maxillary (top) and mandibular (bottom) molar teeth of a dog. The vestibular view is shown. M = molar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.20 Right maxillary first and second molar teeth of a dog. (a) Buccal view. (b) Mesial view. (c) Palatal view. (d) Distal view. The distobuccal and palatal roots of the second molar tooth are fused in this specimen. DB = distobuccal root; M = molar tooth; MB = mesiobuccal root; P = palatal root. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.21 (a) Dorsal view of the right mandible of a dog showing bony ridges at the mesial aspect of the distal alveolus (yellow arrow) and the distal aspect of the mesial alveolus (black arrow) of the first molar tooth, and bony ridges at the mesial aspect of the distal alveolus (yellow arrowhead) and the distal aspect of the mesial alveolus (black arrowhead) of the fourth premolar tooth. (b) Distolingual and (c) apical view of grooves (arrowed) on the distal side of the mesial root and the mesial side of the distal root of the mandibular first molar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.22 Right maxillary (top) and mandibular (bottom) molar teeth of a cat. The vestibular view is shown. M = molar tooth. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.23 Skull of a mesocephalic dog showing dental occlusion. (a) Rostral view. (b) Left lateral view – closed mouth. (c) Left lateral view – open mouth (separated mandible and maxilla). (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.24 Skull of a cat showing dental occlusion. (a) Rostral view. (b) Left lateral view – closed mouth. (c) Left lateral view – open mouth (separated mandible and maxilla). (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.25 Skull of a brachycephalic dog (Boston Terrier) showing dental occlusion. (a) Rostral view. (b) Left lateral view – closed mouth. (c) Left lateral view – open mouth (separated mandible and maxilla). (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.26 Cross-sections through the (a) maxillary incisors; (b) maxillary first premolar; (c) maxillary third premolar; (d) maxillary fourth premolar; (e) maxillary first molar in a dog. C = canine tooth; I = incisor tooth; M = molar tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (Modified from with permission from the publisher)
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2.27 Cross-sections through the maxillary (a) canine and (b) third premolar tooth in a cat. C = canine tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (Modified from with permission from the publisher)
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2.28 Important anatomical structures seen from the right side of a dog. (Courtesy of Dr G Bertolini, modified)
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2.29 Right maxilla of a 6-year-old Maltese dog. The first molar tooth has been extracted. The masseter muscle insertion to the caudal maxilla is visible after elevation of a mucogingival flap created to close the defect. The incision on the mucosa was made rostral and dorsal to the zygomatic and parotid salivary gland duct openings. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)
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2.30 Skull of an adult dog. Empty alveoli of (a) the maxilla and (b) the mandible. In (a) the yellow line denotes the gross lateral margin of the nasal cavity and the striped area denotes the gross margins of the maxillary recess. Dorsal plane cone beam computed tomography (CT) images through the roots of (c) the maxillary and (d) the mandibular teeth. The maxillary second molar tooth, the mandibular first and second incisor and third molar teeth are missing or not visible. Only the mesial root of the mandibular second molar tooth is visible. C = canine tooth; I = incisor tooth; M = molar tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (a,b, © Dr Margherita Gracis) (c,d, Courtesy of Dr N. Girard)
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2.31 Skull of an adult cat. Empty alveoli of (a) the maxilla and (b) the mandible. In (a) the yellow line denotes the gross lateral margin of the nasal cavity and the striped area denotes the lateral margin of the maxillary recess. Dorsal plane cone beam computed tomography (CT) images through the roots of (c) the maxillary and (d) the mandibular teeth. The mandibular first and second incisor teeth are missing or not visible. C = canine tooth; I = incisor tooth; M = molar tooth; PM = premolar tooth. (a,b, © Dr Margherita Gracis; c,d, Courtesy of Dr N. Girard)
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2.32 Extracted mandibular canine teeth from an immature 6-month-old cat (left) and an adult cat (right). (a) Radiographic appearance. (b) Apical view of the extracted specimens. (© Dr Margherita Gracis)

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