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Patients with respiratory disease

image of Patients with respiratory disease
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Abstract

Although often chronic in nature, respiratory disease commonly presents, in an emergency setting, as an acute exacerbation of disease. Patients in respiratory distress require immediate attention and therapy. These patients often present a challenge to the clinician, who has limited time to perform a physical examination and make a rapid assessment. Asthma in a cat; Haemothorax in a dog; Chronic bronchitis in a dog; Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in a dog; Tracheal collapse in a dog.

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Figures

Image of Use of a nebulizer to deliver an aerosol of salbutamol to a cat. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine, 2nd edition)
Use of a nebulizer to deliver an aerosol of salbutamol to a cat. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine, 2nd edition) Use of a nebulizer to deliver an aerosol of salbutamol to a cat. (Reproduced from )
Image of If dried food is being fed, a feeding toy can be used to increase activity at meal times. (Courtesy of Hilary Orpet)
If dried food is being fed, a feeding toy can be used to increase activity at meal times. (Courtesy of Hilary Orpet) If dried food is being fed, a feeding toy can be used to increase activity at meal times. (Courtesy of Hilary Orpet)
Image of A weight management regime can be very successful in cats. (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool)
A weight management regime can be very successful in cats. (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool) A weight management regime can be very successful in cats. (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool)
Image of Alternative methods of oxygen supplementation for a dyspneoic cat.
Alternative methods of oxygen supplementation for a dyspneoic cat. Alternative methods of oxygen supplementation for a dyspneoic cat.
Image of Standard metered dose inhaler for corticosteroid administration. (Courtesy of Lynelle Johnson; reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine, 2nd edition)
Standard metered dose inhaler for corticosteroid administration. (Courtesy of Lynelle Johnson; reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine, 2nd edition) Standard metered dose inhaler for corticosteroid administration. (Courtesy of Lynelle Johnson; reproduced from )
Image of Ultrasound image showing anechoic fluid accumulating in the pleural space. (Courtesy of Frances Barr)
Ultrasound image showing anechoic fluid accumulating in the pleural space. (Courtesy of Frances Barr) Ultrasound image showing anechoic fluid accumulating in the pleural space. (Courtesy of Frances Barr)
Image of In emergencies involving dyspnoeic animals, oxygen can be supplemented using an oxygen cage.
In emergencies involving dyspnoeic animals, oxygen can be supplemented using an oxygen cage. In emergencies involving dyspnoeic animals, oxygen can be supplemented using an oxygen cage.
Image of Thoracocentesis needle being placed in a dog. (Courtesy of Lynelle Johnson)
Thoracocentesis needle being placed in a dog. (Courtesy of Lynelle Johnson) Thoracocentesis needle being placed in a dog. (Courtesy of Lynelle Johnson)
Image of A basket muzzle, fitted here by the veterinary nurse, can help prevent a dog from eating inappropriate items while out on a walk. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall)
A basket muzzle, fitted here by the veterinary nurse, can help prevent a dog from eating inappropriate items while out on a walk. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall) A basket muzzle, fitted here by the veterinary nurse, can help prevent a dog from eating inappropriate items while out on a walk. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall)
Image of Positioning in sternal recumbency with support on either side would be suitable for a dyspnoeic dog. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall)
Positioning in sternal recumbency with support on either side would be suitable for a dyspnoeic dog. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall) Positioning in sternal recumbency with support on either side would be suitable for a dyspnoeic dog. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall)
Image of Nasal oxygen can be provided via nasal prongs in dogs that tolerate their placement and are not panting.
Nasal oxygen can be provided via nasal prongs in dogs that tolerate their placement and are not panting. Nasal oxygen can be provided via nasal prongs in dogs that tolerate their placement and are not panting.
Image of It is important that the oxygen is humidified by passing it through a humidifier bottle first. (Courtesy of Penny Watson)
It is important that the oxygen is humidified by passing it through a humidifier bottle first. (Courtesy of Penny Watson) It is important that the oxygen is humidified by passing it through a humidifier bottle first. (Courtesy of Penny Watson)
Image of BAL sample showing a mixed inflammatory profile dominated by neutrophils and macrophages. (Courtesy of Brendan Corcoran. Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine, 2nd edn)
BAL sample showing a mixed inflammatory profile dominated by neutrophils and macrophages. (Courtesy of Brendan Corcoran. Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine, 2nd edn) BAL sample showing a mixed inflammatory profile dominated by neutrophils and macrophages. (Courtesy of Brendan Corcoran. Reproduced from )
Image of Laser therapy of the gluteal muscles. (Courtesy of Brian Sharp)
Laser therapy of the gluteal muscles. (Courtesy of Brian Sharp) Laser therapy of the gluteal muscles. (Courtesy of Brian Sharp)
Image of Dog wearing an Easy Walk® harness. (Courtesy of Premier Pet Products)
Dog wearing an Easy Walk® harness. (Courtesy of Premier Pet Products) Dog wearing an Easy Walk harness. (Courtesy of Premier Pet Products)
Image of The dog is held across the muzzle. Brushing should be started at the back of the mouth and worked forwards. The bristles of the toothbrush are angled toward the gingival margin. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Advanced Veterinary Nursing, 2nd edn)
The dog is held across the muzzle. Brushing should be started at the back of the mouth and worked forwards. The bristles of the toothbrush are angled toward the gingival margin. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Advanced Veterinary Nursing, 2nd edn) The dog is held across the muzzle. Brushing should be started at the back of the mouth and worked forwards. The bristles of the toothbrush are angled toward the gingival margin. (Reproduced from )
Image of Flow-by oxygen being delivered to a brachycephalic dog. The patient’s head is being held with the neck extended and the mouth propped open.
Flow-by oxygen being delivered to a brachycephalic dog. The patient’s head is being held with the neck extended and the mouth propped open. Flow-by oxygen being delivered to a brachycephalic dog. The patient’s head is being held with the neck extended and the mouth propped open.
Image of Veterinary nurse demonstrating rhythmical sternal rubbing to ease anxiety. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall)
Veterinary nurse demonstrating rhythmical sternal rubbing to ease anxiety. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall) Veterinary nurse demonstrating rhythmical sternal rubbing to ease anxiety. (Courtesy of Rachel Lumbis and Catherine Kendall)
Image of This male Pug had a starting bodyweight of 9.85 kg; over a period of 183 days he lost 2.55 kg. His starting body fat was 36% and final body fat 21% (optimal for breed is around 20%). (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool)
This male Pug had a starting bodyweight of 9.85 kg; over a period of 183 days he lost 2.55 kg. His starting body fat was 36% and final body fat 21% (optimal for breed is around 20%). (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool) This male Pug had a starting bodyweight of 9.85 kg; over a period of 183 days he lost 2.55 kg. His starting body fat was 36% and final body fat 21% (optimal for breed is around 20%). (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool)
Image of A fan can be used to keep a dog cool while caged in the clinic. (Courtesy of Liz Mullineaux)
A fan can be used to keep a dog cool while caged in the clinic. (Courtesy of Liz Mullineaux) A fan can be used to keep a dog cool while caged in the clinic. (Courtesy of Liz Mullineaux)
Image of An oxygen cage is a very effective means of providing oxygen for small patients.
An oxygen cage is a very effective means of providing oxygen for small patients. An oxygen cage is a very effective means of providing oxygen for small patients.
Image of Lateral survey radiograph of a Toy Poodle following placement of an intraluminal self-expanding stent for collapse of the cervical and thoracic inlet portions of the trachea. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Head, Neck and Thoracic Surgery)
Lateral survey radiograph of a Toy Poodle following placement of an intraluminal self-expanding stent for collapse of the cervical and thoracic inlet portions of the trachea. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Head, Neck and Thoracic Surgery) Lateral survey radiograph of a Toy Poodle following placement of an intraluminal self-expanding stent for collapse of the cervical and thoracic inlet portions of the trachea. (Reproduced from )

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