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Patients with urogenital disease

image of Patients with urogenital disease
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Abstract

Diseases of the urogenital system can lead to problems with fluid balance, metabolic derangements, pain/discomfort, infection, dysuria, incontinence (with the potential for urine scalding) and inhibition of voiding behaviours. Appetite may be affected and specific nutritional therapies may be appropriate. Chronic kidney disease in a cat; Chronic pyelonephritis in a dog; Protein-losing nephropathy in a dog; Bladder transition cell carcinoma in a dog; Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in a dog; ‘Idiopathic’ cystitis in a cat; Acute urinary obstruction in a cat; Urolithias in a dog; Prostatitis in a dog.

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Figures

Image of Cat with renal failure and hypertension.
Cat with renal failure and hypertension. Cat with renal failure and hypertension.
Image of Retina from a cat with hypertension, showing areas of detachment dorsal and ventral to the optic nerve head. (Courtesy of David Gould)
Retina from a cat with hypertension, showing areas of detachment dorsal and ventral to the optic nerve head. (Courtesy of David Gould) Retina from a cat with hypertension, showing areas of detachment dorsal and ventral to the optic nerve head. (Courtesy of David Gould)
Image of Cats are best kennelled away from dogs and out of each other’s line of sight.
Cats are best kennelled away from dogs and out of each other’s line of sight. Cats are best kennelled away from dogs and out of each other’s line of sight.
Image of Feeding from different positions or surfaces may encourage eating.
Feeding from different positions or surfaces may encourage eating. Feeding from different positions or surfaces may encourage eating.
Image of Cats generally prefer their water in a wide bowl and at a distance from their food. (© Samantha Elmhurst)
Cats generally prefer their water in a wide bowl and at a distance from their food. (© Samantha Elmhurst) Cats generally prefer their water in a wide bowl and at a distance from their food. (© Samantha Elmhurst)
Image of Maltese Terrier with hyperadrenocorticism and pyelonephritis.
Maltese Terrier with hyperadrenocorticism and pyelonephritis. Maltese Terrier with hyperadrenocorticism and pyelonephritis.
Image of Intravenous urography showing a distorted renal outline, dilated renal pelvises and dilated ureters in a dog with pyelonephritis. Air bubbles, arising from the concurrent pneumocystogram, have entered the ureters.
Intravenous urography showing a distorted renal outline, dilated renal pelvises and dilated ureters in a dog with pyelonephritis. Air bubbles, arising from the concurrent pneumocystogram, have entered the ureters. Intravenous urography showing a distorted renal outline, dilated renal pelvises and dilated ureters in a dog with pyelonephritis. Air bubbles, arising from the concurrent pneumocystogram, have entered the ureters.
Image of White cell casts in a urine sample.
White cell casts in a urine sample. White cell casts in a urine sample.
Image of This small dog is undergoing gentle hydrotherapy in a small tub. If using a full-sized hydrotherapy pool, a person should be in the water with the dog. (© Janet Van Dyke)
This small dog is undergoing gentle hydrotherapy in a small tub. If using a full-sized hydrotherapy pool, a person should be in the water with the dog. (© Janet Van Dyke) This small dog is undergoing gentle hydrotherapy in a small tub. If using a full-sized hydrotherapy pool, a person should be in the water with the dog. (© Janet Van Dyke)
Image of Bernese Mountain Dog presented with peripheral oedema. Decubital ulcers were apparent on close inspection.
Bernese Mountain Dog presented with peripheral oedema. Decubital ulcers were apparent on close inspection. Bernese Mountain Dog presented with peripheral oedema. Decubital ulcers were apparent on close inspection.
Image of Decubital ulcer arising from recumbency and oedema. (Courtesy of Jonathan Bray)
Decubital ulcer arising from recumbency and oedema. (Courtesy of Jonathan Bray) Decubital ulcer arising from recumbency and oedema. (Courtesy of Jonathan Bray)
Image of A frothy head on a shaken urine sample is an indicator of significant proteinuria.
A frothy head on a shaken urine sample is an indicator of significant proteinuria. A frothy head on a shaken urine sample is an indicator of significant proteinuria.
Image of Dogs with a quiet temperament will benefit from gentle interaction with family members. (Courtesy of Stephen Torrington)
Dogs with a quiet temperament will benefit from gentle interaction with family members. (Courtesy of Stephen Torrington) Dogs with a quiet temperament will benefit from gentle interaction with family members. (Courtesy of Stephen Torrington)
Image of Placement of an indwelling urinary catheter can minimize the risk of urine scalding in a recumbent patient.
Placement of an indwelling urinary catheter can minimize the risk of urine scalding in a recumbent patient. Placement of an indwelling urinary catheter can minimize the risk of urine scalding in a recumbent patient.
Image of Soft bedding and physiotherapy can help reduce decubital ulcers.
Soft bedding and physiotherapy can help reduce decubital ulcers. Soft bedding and physiotherapy can help reduce decubital ulcers.
Image of Pneumocystogram demonstrating masses in the trigone of the bladder.
Pneumocystogram demonstrating masses in the trigone of the bladder. Pneumocystogram demonstrating masses in the trigone of the bladder.
Image of Cytological specimen showing transitional cell carcinoma cells. May–Grünwald–Giemsa; original magnification X1000. (Courtesy of Roger Powell, PTDS Laboratory Services)
Cytological specimen showing transitional cell carcinoma cells. May–Grünwald–Giemsa; original magnification X1000. (Courtesy of Roger Powell, PTDS Laboratory Services) Cytological specimen showing transitional cell carcinoma cells. May–Grünwald–Giemsa; original magnification X1000. (Courtesy of Roger Powell, PTDS Laboratory Services)
Image of Surgical placement of a cystostomy tube. (Courtesy of Jonathan Bray)
Surgical placement of a cystostomy tube. (Courtesy of Jonathan Bray) Surgical placement of a cystostomy tube. (Courtesy of Jonathan Bray)
Image of Teaching an owner to palpate a dog’s bladder for subsequent assessment of voiding function at home.
Teaching an owner to palpate a dog’s bladder for subsequent assessment of voiding function at home. Teaching an owner to palpate a dog’s bladder for subsequent assessment of voiding function at home.
Image of Caudal displacement and dorsal bulging of the bladder neck on a pneumocystogram is typical of USMI.
Caudal displacement and dorsal bulging of the bladder neck on a pneumocystogram is typical of USMI. Caudal displacement and dorsal bulging of the bladder neck on a pneumocystogram is typical of USMI.
Image of A Dobermann before (top) and after a weight management programme. Starting bodyweight was 50 kg and she lost 4.5 kg (19%) slowly but steadily over 468 days. Her body fat content decreased in that time from 46% to 32%, so all weight lost was adipose tissue. (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool)
A Dobermann before (top) and after a weight management programme. Starting bodyweight was 50 kg and she lost 4.5 kg (19%) slowly but steadily over 468 days. Her body fat content decreased in that time from 46% to 32%, so all weight lost was adipose tissue. (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool) A Dobermann before and after a weight management programme. Starting bodyweight was 50 kg and she lost 4.5 kg (19%) slowly but steadily over 468 days. Her body fat content decreased in that time from 46% to 32%, so all weight lost was adipose tissue. (Courtesy of The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool)
Image of Oriental cat demonstrating urinary tenesmus. The patient is receiving intravenous fluids.
Oriental cat demonstrating urinary tenesmus. The patient is receiving intravenous fluids. Oriental cat demonstrating urinary tenesmus. The patient is receiving intravenous fluids.
Image of Some cats prefer to drink from free-flowing water, like this drinking fountain.
Some cats prefer to drink from free-flowing water, like this drinking fountain. Some cats prefer to drink from free-flowing water, like this drinking fountain.
Image of A screened off area of the waiting room, specially for cats, can help reduce their stress.
A screened off area of the waiting room, specially for cats, can help reduce their stress. A screened off area of the waiting room, specially for cats, can help reduce their stress.
Image of Using a urethral catheter to unblock a cat with a urethral obstruction. This mucoid/struvite plug is approximately 2–3 mm wide and 2 cm long.
Using a urethral catheter to unblock a cat with a urethral obstruction. This mucoid/struvite plug is approximately 2–3 mm wide and 2 cm long. Using a urethral catheter to unblock a cat with a urethral obstruction. This mucoid/struvite plug is approximately 2–3 mm wide and 2 cm long.
Image of Needling over the sacrum (electroacupuncture in this example) has been reported to be useful when attempting to unblock an obstructed urethra. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Needling over the sacrum (electroacupuncture in this example) has been reported to be useful when attempting to unblock an obstructed urethra. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) Needling over the sacrum (electroacupuncture in this example) has been reported to be useful when attempting to unblock an obstructed urethra. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of Following relief of the acute urinary obstruction, the cat is receiving intravenous fluids.
Following relief of the acute urinary obstruction, the cat is receiving intravenous fluids. Following relief of the acute urinary obstruction, the cat is receiving intravenous fluids.
Image of This plain abdominal radiograph shows bilateral radiopaque nephroliths and a radiopaque object on the right, between the kidney and the bladder, suspected to be a ureterolith.
This plain abdominal radiograph shows bilateral radiopaque nephroliths and a radiopaque object on the right, between the kidney and the bladder, suspected to be a ureterolith. This plain abdominal radiograph shows bilateral radiopaque nephroliths and a radiopaque object on the right, between the kidney and the bladder, suspected to be a ureterolith.
Image of Calcium oxalate crystalluria, consistent with oxalate urolithiasis.
Calcium oxalate crystalluria, consistent with oxalate urolithiasis. Calcium oxalate crystalluria, consistent with oxalate urolithiasis.
Image of Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed to oxalate urolithiasis. Owners should be advised that recurrence is likely.
Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed to oxalate urolithiasis. Owners should be advised that recurrence is likely. Miniature Schnauzers are predisposed to oxalate urolithiasis. Owners should be advised that recurrence is likely.
Image of White blood cells and bacterial rod forms in a urine sample.
White blood cells and bacterial rod forms in a urine sample. White blood cells and bacterial rod forms in a urine sample.
Image of Ultrasonographic appearance of the prostate from a dog with acute prostatitis. The gland is enlarged (4.1 cm) and of a mixed, irregular echogenicity. Some hypoechoic (probably fluid-filled) spaces are apparent.
Ultrasonographic appearance of the prostate from a dog with acute prostatitis. The gland is enlarged (4.1 cm) and of a mixed, irregular echogenicity. Some hypoechoic (probably fluid-filled) spaces are apparent. Ultrasonographic appearance of the prostate from a dog with acute prostatitis. The gland is enlarged (4.1 cm) and of a mixed, irregular echogenicity. Some hypoechoic (probably fluid-filled) spaces are apparent.
Image of A swollen, painful prostate gland in this patient was associated with acute-onset abdominal pain and fever.
A swollen, painful prostate gland in this patient was associated with acute-onset abdominal pain and fever. A swollen, painful prostate gland in this patient was associated with acute-onset abdominal pain and fever.

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