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Management of neurological and neuromuscular disorders

image of Management of neurological and neuromuscular disorders
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Abstract

This chapter deals with the management of the most important neurological/neuromuscular disorders that are encountered in feline practice, notably head and spinal trauma, brachial plexus avulsion, ischaemic neuromyopathy, hypokalaemic polymyopathy, myasthenia gravis, vestibular disease and cognitive dysfunction syndrome. : Tail-pull injuries and tail amputation.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443149.chap17

Figures

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17.1 MR images of a cat with head trauma caused by a road traffic accident. Transverse T2-weighted image showing marked oedema (arrow) within the left piriform lobe. T2-gradient echo with areas of hypointensity in the left piriform lobe (arrow), suggestive of haemorrhage and comminuted calvarial fracture (arrowhead).
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17.2 Lateral radiograph of a lumbar spine in a cat with fracture of the caudal part of the body of L5. (Courtesy of Cristian Falzone)
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17.3 Sagittal and transverse T2-weighted MR images of the caudal lumbar spine of a cat shot by an air gun pellet. Note the fracture of the caudal part of the dorsal lamina (arrow) of L3, causing compression of the spinal cord.
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17.4 Images of a cat with tail-pull injury. Lateral radiograph, showing the sacrocaudal dislocation (arrow). Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) MR image, showing transection at the level of the origin of the pelvic and pudendal nerves (arrowhead) and soft tissue damage (arrow) ventral to the tail. (See QRG 17.1 for a guide to tail amputation.)
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17.5 Brachial plexus paralysis in a cat secondary to trauma. There is marked neurogenic muscle atrophy in addition to the obvious lack of strength and extensor tone.
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17.6 Testing for positional nystagmus should be considered as part of the neurological evaluation of any cat with ataxia. Extending the head and neck while the cat is in dorsal recumbency – here lying along the legs of the vet seated on the floor – can help in detecting a positional nystagmus by challenging the vestibular system.
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Image of Position of the dorsal skin incision site. The incision is centred on the 3rd caudal vertebra, with a convexity of one caudal vertebral length towards the tail tip.
Position of the dorsal skin incision site. The incision is centred on the 3rd caudal vertebra, with a convexity of one caudal vertebral length towards the tail tip. Position of the dorsal skin incision site. The incision is centred on the 3rd caudal vertebra, with a convexity of one caudal vertebral length towards the tail tip.
Image of Position of the ventral skin incision site.
Position of the ventral skin incision site. Position of the ventral skin incision site.
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Image of Incising the ventral muscles over the appropriate disc space. The small incision in the more distal tail muscle occurred during incision of the overlying skin.
Incising the ventral muscles over the appropriate disc space. The small incision in the more distal tail muscle occurred during incision of the overlying skin. Incising the ventral muscles over the appropriate disc space. The small incision in the more distal tail muscle occurred during incision of the overlying skin.
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