1887

Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and hyperpnoea

image of Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and hyperpnoea
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Abstract

This chapter focuses on immediate management, diagnostic approach and treatment of respiratory diseases, such as dyspnoea, tachypnoea, hyperpnoea and orthopnoea. : Management of severe dyspnoea; Oxygen therapy; Emergency thoracic radiography; Thoracocentesis; Inserting a chest drain; Inserting a small-bore wire-guided chest drain.

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Figures

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4.2.1 Grid system for auscultation of the thorax. Using this system each area of the pulmonary field is auscultated (and percussed), to help identify focal changes. In this patient, a loss of pulmonary sounds was identified in the cranial and ventral regions of the thorax due to the presence of a cranial mediastinal mass and associated pleural effusion.
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Image of Placement of pulse oximeter probe on the tongue – suitable for anaesthetized, heavily sedated or comatose patients.
Placement of pulse oximeter probe on the tongue – suitable for anaesthetized, heavily sedated or comatose patients. Placement of pulse oximeter probe on the tongue – suitable for anaesthetized, heavily sedated or comatose patients.
Image of Placement of pulse oximeter probe upon the pinna – suitable for conscious patients; may not work if skin pigmented.
Placement of pulse oximeter probe upon the pinna – suitable for conscious patients; may not work if skin pigmented. Placement of pulse oximeter probe upon the pinna – suitable for conscious patients; may not work if skin pigmented.
Image of Placement of pulse oximeter probe across the phalangeal pad – suitable for conscious patients; may not work if skin pigmented or in larger cats.
Placement of pulse oximeter probe across the phalangeal pad – suitable for conscious patients; may not work if skin pigmented or in larger cats. Placement of pulse oximeter probe across the phalangeal pad – suitable for conscious patients; may not work if skin pigmented or in larger cats.
Image of Flow-by oxygen delivery with a facemask.
Flow-by oxygen delivery with a facemask. Flow-by oxygen delivery with a facemask.
Image of Oxygen tents.
Oxygen tents. Oxygen tents.
Image of Oxygen cage.
Oxygen cage. Oxygen cage.
Image of Oxygen hood.
Oxygen hood. Oxygen hood.
Image of Nasal catheter.
Nasal catheter. Nasal catheter.
Image of Obtaining a DV view of a dyspnoeic cat using minimal restraint.
Obtaining a DV view of a dyspnoeic cat using minimal restraint. Obtaining a DV view of a dyspnoeic cat using minimal restraint.
Image of Obtaining an image with the cat in a carrier. Do not close the lid, or the grid will form part of the image. (Courtesy of Paul Mahoney)
Obtaining an image with the cat in a carrier. Do not close the lid, or the grid will form part of the image. (Courtesy of Paul Mahoney) Obtaining an image with the cat in a carrier. Do not close the lid, or the grid will form part of the image. (Courtesy of Paul Mahoney)
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Image of PLEURAL EFFUSION. Bilateral pleural effusion. (Courtesy of Paul Mahoney)
PLEURAL EFFUSION. Bilateral pleural effusion. (Courtesy of Paul Mahoney) PLEURAL EFFUSION. Bilateral pleural effusion. (Courtesy of Paul Mahoney)
Image of FELINE LOWER AIRWAY DISEASE. Hyperinflation and increased bronchial markings, together with cranial bronchiectasis in a cat with asthma. The asymmetrical appearance of the diaphragm on the DV view is probably an artefact due to partial collapse of the right lung from the patient lying in right lateral recumbency. Old fractures of left ribs 8–11 can be seen on both views. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
FELINE LOWER AIRWAY DISEASE. Hyperinflation and increased bronchial markings, together with cranial bronchiectasis in a cat with asthma. The asymmetrical appearance of the diaphragm on the DV view is probably an artefact due to partial collapse of the right lung from the patient lying in right lateral recumbency. Old fractures of left ribs 8–11 can be seen on both views. (Courtesy of University of Bristol) FELINE LOWER AIRWAY DISEASE. Hyperinflation and increased bronchial markings, together with cranial bronchiectasis in a cat with asthma. The asymmetrical appearance of the diaphragm on the DV view is probably an artefact due to partial collapse of the right lung from the patient lying in right lateral recumbency. Old fractures of left ribs 8–11 can be seen on both views. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
Image of PULMONARY OEDEMA. Patchy areas of increased opacity are seen around the hilus and within the caudal lung fields, together with marked cardiomegaly. The diagnosis was cardiogenic oedema. (Courtesy of University of Liverpool)
PULMONARY OEDEMA. Patchy areas of increased opacity are seen around the hilus and within the caudal lung fields, together with marked cardiomegaly. The diagnosis was cardiogenic oedema. (Courtesy of University of Liverpool) PULMONARY OEDEMA. Patchy areas of increased opacity are seen around the hilus and within the caudal lung fields, together with marked cardiomegaly. The diagnosis was cardiogenic oedema. (Courtesy of University of Liverpool)
Image of MEDIASTINAL MASS. A large soft tissue mass fills the cranial thorax, displacing the trachea dorsally and the heart and lungs caudally. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
MEDIASTINAL MASS. A large soft tissue mass fills the cranial thorax, displacing the trachea dorsally and the heart and lungs caudally. (Courtesy of University of Bristol) MEDIASTINAL MASS. A large soft tissue mass fills the cranial thorax, displacing the trachea dorsally and the heart and lungs caudally. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
Image of PNEUMOTHORAX. Bilateral pneumothorax, with marked increase in the opacity of the collapsed lung lobes. A chest drain is seen on the lateral view. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
PNEUMOTHORAX. Bilateral pneumothorax, with marked increase in the opacity of the collapsed lung lobes. A chest drain is seen on the lateral view. (Courtesy of University of Bristol) PNEUMOTHORAX. Bilateral pneumothorax, with marked increase in the opacity of the collapsed lung lobes. A chest drain is seen on the lateral view. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
Image of DIAPHRAGMATIC RUPTURE. The stomach is identified in the right ventral thorax as a well defined gas-filled viscus, with the heart displaced craniodorsally and to the left. Several rib fractures can be seen. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
DIAPHRAGMATIC RUPTURE. The stomach is identified in the right ventral thorax as a well defined gas-filled viscus, with the heart displaced craniodorsally and to the left. Several rib fractures can be seen. (Courtesy of University of Bristol) DIAPHRAGMATIC RUPTURE. The stomach is identified in the right ventral thorax as a well defined gas-filled viscus, with the heart displaced craniodorsally and to the left. Several rib fractures can be seen. (Courtesy of University of Bristol)
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Image of Chest tube with trochar, Luer connector and stopcock.
Chest tube with trochar, Luer connector and stopcock. Chest tube with trochar, Luer connector and stopcock.
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Image of Hold the tip of the trochar during insertion to prevent it penetrating too deeply.
Hold the tip of the trochar during insertion to prevent it penetrating too deeply. Hold the tip of the trochar during insertion to prevent it penetrating too deeply.
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Image of 1 = ‘Thumb-wheel’ adapter for wire introduction. 2 = Extra suture wings. 3 = Needle-free drainage cap. 4 = Locking cover for extra suture wing.
1 = ‘Thumb-wheel’ adapter for wire introduction. 2 = Extra suture wings. 3 = Needle-free drainage cap. 4 = Locking cover for extra suture wing. 1 = ‘Thumb-wheel’ adapter for wire introduction. 2 = Extra suture wings. 3 = Needle-free drainage cap. 4 = Locking cover for extra suture wing.
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