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Imaging techniques

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Abstract

Avian patients will often be critically ill at clinical presentation. Conventional radiography and ultrasonography, together with specific laboratory tests, allow a rapid diagnosis in the live bird. This chapter provides an extensive guide to radiography and ultrasonography in poultry, and discusses the use of CT and MRI.

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Figures

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11.1 Patient positioning for (a) a ventrodorsal and (b) a lateral view of a chicken using a radiotranslucent fixation plate. Note: the bird is conscious during the procedure. For the lateral view, to avoid tilting of the body, radiotranslucent material such as a towel can be placed between the wings.
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11.2 Patient positioning for a ventrodorsal view of the feet of an Orloff chicken using manual restraint. Note: it is important to keep the hands of the person restraining the bird outside the primary X-ray beam, even when wearing lead gloves. Other personal protective equipment such as a lead apron and thyroid gland protective collar should also be worn.
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11.3 Patient positioning for a lateral view of a Pakistani partridge. General anaesthesia has been provided with isoflurane gas and the feet and wings have been fixed into position with adhesive tape.
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11.4 (a) Caudocranial view of the wing of a duck showing a distal fracture of the radius and ulna. (b) Mediolateral view of the wing of a duck with a distal fracture of the radius. In contrast to (a) a fracture of the ulna may be easily overlooked on this view.
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11.5 Ventrodorsal view of a female Indian Runner duck. The medullary bone in the femur and tibiotarsus (note the increased radiodensity) is denoted by the arrowheads. AS = caudal air sac region; AX = axillary air sacs; H = heart; HL = the ‘waist’ of the hourglass shape caused by the heart and liver shadows; LU = lung region; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.6 Ventrodorsal view of a Japanese Bantam. Note that there is no hourglass shape created by the heart and liver shadows and that the bones of the legs are relatively short (compared with Figure 11.15 ). AS = caudal air sac region; CR = crop; H = heart; INT = intestines; LU = lung region; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.7 Ventrodorsal view of a chicken prior to laying an egg. Due to the space-occupying process (developed egg), the inner organs such as the heart, lungs, air sacs and liver cannot be properly assessed. AS = caudal air sacs; CR = crop; E = egg; H =heart; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.8 Lateral view of a goose. Due to the poor positioning (the legs have not been pulled caudally as far as possible), there is superimposition in the caudal body cavity and the organs cannot be properly assessed. H = heart; INT = intestines; LU = lung region; P = proventriculus; V = large heart vessels; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.9 Lateral view of a female Indian Runner duck. The medullary bone in the femur and tibiotarsus (note the increased radiodensity) is denoted by the arrowheads. AS = caudal air sac region; C = cloaca; H = heart; INT = intestines; LI = liver region; LU = lung region; O = region of the ovary; S = spleen; SY = typically elongated syrinx; T = trachea; V = large heart vessel; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.10 Lateral view of a Japanese Bantam. Note that due to the normally ingesta-filled and distended intestines, the caudal air sacs are not usually visible in Galliformes. In addition, the bones of the hindlimbs are relatively short (compared with Figure 11.15 ) and the pygostyle points dorsally. C = cloaca; H = heart; INT = intestines; LI = liver region; LU = lung region; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.11 Lateral view of a chicken prior to laying an egg. Due to the space-occupying process (developed egg), the inner organs such as the heart, lung, air sacs and liver cannot be properly assessed. CR = crop; E = egg; H = heart; LU = lung region; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.12 Mediolateral view of the wing of a Game Bantam.
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11.13 Patient positioning for a caudocranial view of the wing of a chicken.
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11.14 Caudocranial view of the wing of a Game Bantam.
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11.15 Ventrodorsal view of the legs of a Bantam cockerel. Note the typically long legs of this breed (compared with Figure 11.6 ). The arrowheads denote the spurs.
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11.16 Lateral view of the skull of a Crested duck. The arrowhead denotes the bony protuberantia of the crest. * = crest.
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11.17 (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) lateral view of a goldeneye. AS = caudal air sac region; AX = axillary air sacs; BT = bulla tympaniformis; H = heart; HL = the ‘waist’ of the hourglass shape caused by the heart and liver shadows; INT = intestines; K = region of the kidneys; LU = lung region; T = physiological widening of the trachea; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.18 Ventrodorsal view of the feet of a Faverolle cockerel. Note the polydactyly (open arrowheads) and spur (solid arrowheads).
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11.19 (a) Ventrodorsal and (b) lateral view of a chicken 50 minutes after the ingestion of barium sulphate contrast medium. CR = crop; D = duodenal loop; OE = oesophagus; P = proventriculus; VEN = ventriculus.
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11.20 Ventrodorsal view of the legs of a female Indian Runner duck. This image clearly shows soft tissue swelling and reorganization in the right medial toe (white arrowhead), arthritis in the left toe (open arrowhead) and medullary bone in both proximal tibiotarsi (black arrowheads). Note also that due to the erect leg posture in this particular duck breed, the intra-articular space in the hock joint is extremely narrow.
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11.21 Ventrodorsal view of a young turkey with tibiotarsal rotation. Note the wide joint space, which is physiological in young birds.
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11.22 Ventrodorsal view of a red junglefowl with severe osteomyelitis in both ulnar bones and mild disease in both radial bones. This could be a sign of salmonellosis.
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11.23 Ventrodorsal view of a male Mandarin duck showing chondrosarcoma of the periosteum in both wings.
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11.24 Ventrodorsal view of lesser whitefronted goose showing severe osteolysis in both knee joints due to tuberculosis.
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11.25 Ventrodorsal view of a female Indian Runner duck. Medullary bone is visible in the long bones of the legs and the shoulder girdle. It is not possible to differentiate the internal organs, with the exception of the displaced ventriculus, due to the presence of ascites (see also Figure 11.41 ).
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11.26 Lateral view of a peacock showing a lung granuloma due to mycobacteriosis.
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11.27 Ventrodorsal view of a duck with gunshot wounds. Apart from the radiodense shotgun pellets embedded within the soft tissues and the obvious humeral fracture, note that the heart apex and liver edges can be clearly differentiated. This is due to air sac rupture within this area and, as air is a negative contrast medium, the organs have become clearly outlined on the image. This is commonly seen following trauma.
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11.28 Lateral view of a pheasant showing enlarged and partially gas-filled intestinal loops as a result of a parasitic infection.
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11.29 Lateral view of a Pakistani partridge showing radiodense foreign bodies within the ventriculus.
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11.30 Ventrodorsal view of a painted shelduck showing massive liver enlargement due to neoplasia.
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11.31 Lateral view of an Indian Runner duck showing an enlarged spleen (arrowheads).
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11.32 Ventrodorsal view of a Game Bantam showing active testes (arrowheads). These should not be confused with kidney tumours. Note the extremely well developed musculature of the hindlimbs.
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11.33 Ventrodorsal view of a female partridge with egg yolk peritonitis (compare with Figure 11.48 ). There is no differentiation of the internal organs and egg structures are visible in the caudal abdomen (arrowhead).
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11.34 Ventrodorsal view of a chicken with soft-shelled eggs.
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11.35 Patient positioning for an ultrasound examination of an Orloff chicken using the ventromedian coupling site. Once the feathers are parted and acoustic gel applied, the transducer is positioned caudal to the sternum.
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11.36 Patient positioning for an ultrasound examination of a Faverolle using the parasternal coupling site. Once the feathers are parted and acoustic gel applied, the transducer is positioned caudal to the last rib.
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11.37 Echocardiograms of a Game Bantam. (a) Ventromedian view during systole. (b) Ventromedian view during diastole. (c) Parasternal short-axis view. GB = gallbladder; L = left ventricle; LI = liver; R = right ventricle.
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11.38 Ultrasonogram of a pheasant obtained using a ventromedian approach. The intestinal loops, which are filled with ingesta (*), are clearly visible.
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11.39 Ultrasonogram of a goose obtained using a ventromedian approach showing the ventriculus. G = grit; M = muscle.
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11.40 Ultrasonogram of a quail obtained using a ventromedian approach showing distended intestinal loops due to parasitic infection.
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11.41 Ultrasonogram of an Indian Runner duck obtained using a ventromedian approach showing ascites due to liver congestion. A = ascites; H = heart.
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11.42 (a) Ultrasonogram of a chicken obtained using a ventromedian approach showing the liver parenchyma and large hepatic vessels. (b) Doppler ultrasonogram of a chicken obtained using a ventromedian approach showing the blood flow in the hepatic vessels.
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11.43 Ultrasonogram of a goose obtained using a ventromedian approach showing increased homogeneous echogenicity of the liver parenchyma. The diagnosis was confirmed as hepatitis due to infection.
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11.44 Ultrasonogram of a Faverolle obtained using a ventromedian approach showing the irregular structure and heterogeneous echogenicity of the liver parenchyma. The diagnosis was confirmed as liver neoplasia due to leucosis.
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11.45 Ultrasonogram of a chicken obtained using a ventromedian approach showing an active ovary (O). F = follicle.
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11.46 Ultrasonogram of a chicken obtained using a ventromedian approach showing an intact calcified egg. Note that due to artefacts, the eggshell may be misinterpreted as being broken (arrowheads).
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11.47 Ultrasonogram of a Japanese Bantam obtained using a ventromedian approach showing a laminated egg. Note the typical onion-like structure (arrowhead).
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11.48 Ultrasonogram of an Indian Runner duck obtained using a ventromedian approach showing egg peritonitis. A = ascites.
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11.49 Patient positioning for computed tomography using a restraint plate. As the examination only takes a few minutes and the equipment is not noisy (in contrast to magnetic resonance imaging), it is possible to perform the assessment without sedation in most birds.
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11.50 Computed tomographic image of a chicken showing how to obtain bone density measurements of the tibiotarsus.
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11.51 Magnetic resonance image of the skull of a Crested duck. The crest (+) and the lipoma (*) within the cerebellum are easily identifiable.

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