Post-mortem examination

image of Post-mortem examination
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In avian medicine, the post-mortem examination is a valuable part of the diagnostic work-up. The findings in one animal may help others in a collection. This chapter describes the steps in a postmortem examination and provides a broad overview of possible interpretations of some common lesions.

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25.2 Chicken with sticktight fleas (). (Courtesy of Geoffrey Olsen)
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25.3 Poultry lice may be identified during post-mortem examination.
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25.4 Wetting of the plumage allows close examination of the skin.
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25.5 Examination of the head of the femur.
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25.6 The skin has been peeled away from the area of examination in this common guillemot.
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25.7 The initial incisions should be made from the crop to the vent.
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25.8 Cutting through the coracoid bones to lift and remove the sternum.
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25.9 Examination of the abdominal air sacs. Normal air sacs should be translucent.
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25.10 Location of the thyroid gland (arrowed) in a pheasant.
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25.11 Location of lobes of the thymus (arrowed).
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25.12 The round dark brown spleen (arrowed) is visible as the proventriculus and ventriculus are rolled laterally in this chicken. (Courtesy of Leila Marcucci)
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25.13 The ventriculus has been incised to allow examination of the koilin.
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25.14 The caeca from a chicken. This is a fixed specimen.
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25.15 Location of Meckel’s diverticulum (arrowed).
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25.16 An active oviduct (arrowed) and ovaries (*) are present in the coelom of this chicken.
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25.17 The kidney of a hen: the three divisions are arrowed. (Courtesy of Leila Marcucci)
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25.18 With the kidney removed, the sciatic plexus can be examined.
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25.19 The normal lungs are pink in this bufflehead.
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25.20 The cervical oesophagus is open.
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25.21 Normal syringeal bulla in a mallard duck.
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25.22 Urate crystals from a bird with articular gout are readily identifiable by exfoliative cytology.
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25.23 The enhanced lobular or reticular pattern can be appreciated in this liver from a goose.
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25.25 Variable epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis due to scaly leg mites () in a chicken.
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25.26 Subcutaneous mites () may be found at post-mortem examination.
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25.27 Severe dermatitis and cellulitis following a dog attack in a duck.
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25.28 Severe pododermatitis in a mute swan.
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25.29 Multifocal nodular swellings of the skin due to Marek’s disease. Many lesions involve the feather follicles (the feathers have been removed in this case).
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25.30 Proliferative and necrotizing lesions on the skin associated with fowlpox infection. (Courtesy of Greg Rich)
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25.31 Thickened skin in a chicken with xanthomatosis.
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25.32 Synovitis of the intertarsal joint (hock) due to .
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25.33 Beading of the ribs associated with rickets.
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25.34 Osteopetrosis (note: the normal bone is on the right).
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25.35 Sarcosporidial schizonts causing numerous foci and streaks in the skeletal muscle of a duck.
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25.36 Dissecting aneurysm with periarterial haemorrhage. Inset: close-up view of the dissection.
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25.37 Extensive swelling of the periocular sinus and closing of the eye. (Courtesy of Geoffrey Olsen)
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25.38 Haemorrhage and tracheal exudate in a chicken with infectious laryngotracheitis.
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25.39 Fowlpox lesions in the oral cavity (arrowed).
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25.40 Candidiasis (thrush) in the crop of a chicken. Note the proliferative mucosa.
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25.41 Proventricular haemorrhage (arrowed) which can be seen in birds with Newcastle disease or chicken infectious anaemia.
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25.42 A wet mount cytology preparation of from the intestine of a quail.
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25.43 Ascarids in the small intestine.
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25.44 Severe haemorrhage due to duck virus enteritis infection.
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25.45 Multifocal necrotizing ulcerative enteritis due to in a Bobwhite quail.
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25.46 Marked typhlitis in a turkey with infection.
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25.47 Slightly enlarged liver with multiple yellow-white foci indicative of septicaemia due to (fowl cholera).
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25.48 Necrotic foci in the liver and caeca of a turkey associated with histomoniasis.
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25.49 Enlarged liver with a mottled appearance in a chicken with lymphoid leucosis.
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25.50 Enlarged liver with a mottled appearance in a duck with duck viral hepatitis.
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25.51 Enlarged yellow liver, typical for hepatic lipidosis, in a Palawan pheasant.
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25.52 Enlarged spleen with foci of necrosis and inflammation scattered throughout the parenchyma. This appearance is typically seen with bacterial septicaemia.
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25.53 Loss of pigmentation and irregularity of the iris is due to Marek’s disease.

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