Clinical techniques

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This chapter describes routes of administration for medicines, methods for sexing poultry and euthanasia techniques. The text and figures are complemented by practical tip and warning boxes, to provide readily accessible information.

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9.1 The administration of food or medication to a chicken can be achieved using a gavage tube.
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9.2 Administering a tablet to a chicken.
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9.3 An assistant restrains a chicken in an upright position for the administration of an intramuscular injection.
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9.4 Subcutaneous injection sites (circled) over the pectoral muscles of a chicken.
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9.5 Subcutaneous injection site (circled) in the inguinal web of a chicken.
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9.6 Intramuscular injection sites (circled) in the pectoral region of a chicken. If repeated injections are required, the sites should be rotated.
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9.7 (a) A catheter placed in the superficial ulnar vein of a chicken. (b) Tape has been placed around the hub of the catheter to aid suturing into place.
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9.8 An intravenous catheter being placed into the medial tarsal vein of (a) a chicken and (b) a swan. (Saline solution with added electrolytes is being injected.)
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9.9 The right jugular vein can be seen running down the apterium in this chicken.
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9.10 (a) An intraosseous catheter placed in the distal ulna of a chicken. (b) The radiograph confirms the correct placement.
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9.11 (a) An intraosseous catheter placed in the proximal tibiotarsus of a chicken. (b) The radiograph confirms the correct placement.
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9.13 The male partridge form of the Cochin breed of chicken (left) has a marked difference in colour and pattern to that of the female (right and background). In some other colour forms and breeds of chicken, cockerels and hens may show little or no difference in colouration. (Courtesy of R Poland with thanks to M Boarder)
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9.14 Spur development on the medial aspect of the right leg of a 5-year-old Welsummer hen. The spur on the left leg had not developed beyond a small knub.
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9.15 Male (right) and female (left) mallard ducks show marked dimorphism in terms of feather colour and pattern. (Courtesy of R Poland)
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9.16 The male Muscovy duck (left) typically has more developed caruncles and more red colouring on the side of the head than the female (right). (Courtesy of R Poland with thanks to M Boarder)
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9.17 (a) The male turkey usually has a beard, which is generally absent in (b) the female. The male also has a more developed snood, and the neck feathers do not cover as far up the neck as they do in the female. (Courtesy of L Vale)
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9.18 The male (left) and female (right) golden pheasant are a good example of sexual dimorphism with the male demonstrating a brightly coloured plumage in comparison with the female.
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9.19 The adult male (left) and female (right) Indian peafowl are easily distinguishable from one another based on the brightly coloured plumage and long train of the peacock compared with the duller coloured plumage and short tail of the peahen. (Courtesy of R Poland)
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9.20 The phallus of an adult gander.

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