1887

Oral and dental problems

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Abstract

Signs of disease originating in the oral cavity are a common cause for presentation in general practice. The initial reason for presentation is often vague, such as a smelly or painful mouth or difficulty with eating. There is often a simple explanation for what the owner has identified as a problem; however, it pays to keep an open mind and to have a thorough approach to dealing with these cases, as there can sometimes be a more serious or sinister cause. This chapter considers trauma, initial approach to the non-emergency presentation, common problems and changes in oral mucous membranes. : Examining the mouth in a conscious dog; Scaling and polishing teeth; Tooth extraction.

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Figures

Image of 20.4
20.4 There is swelling and exophthalmos on the right-hand side of the head of this dog with an intraoral abscess.
Image of 20.6
20.6 DV radiograph of the skull, showing the normal appearance of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs; arrowed). In the absence of CT imaging, this is a very useful view for highlighting the TMJs.
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20.7 Right lateral oblique radiograph of the mandible, showing a caudal mandibular fracture (arrowed).
Image of 20.10
20.10 This 11-year-old Cocker Spaniel bitch showed some typical signs of periodontal disease. There is tartar on PM4 and M1, with associated gingivitis. Pus is also evident between the teeth.
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20.11 Sagittal fracture of PM4 resulting in periodontal disease. This tooth should be extracted (see QRG 20.3 ).
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20.12 An intraoral abscess due to a stick foreign body, shown after lancing.
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20.14 Typical appearance of an epulis: a firm, pink to red mass originating on the gingival margin.
Image of 20.15
20.15 A 2-year-old male Patterdale Terrier with a chronic congenital cleft palate. The dog presented with intermittent mucopurulent nasal discharge and halitosis. A rostral premaxillectomy was used to deal with the abnormal tissue and small cleft at the rostral extent of the lesion, and a bilateral mucoperiosteal flap technique was used to close the large defect of the hard palate.
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20.16 A 9-year-old Jack Russell Terrier bitch with an acquired oronasal fistula secondary to the loss of a canine tooth. Elevation of a mucoperiosteal flap. Appearance following repair.
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20.18 Lip-fold dermatitis in a 7-year-old Irish Setter before and after hair removal. An ellipse of skin is sharply dissected to remove the ulcerated tissue. Haemorrhage from superficial vessels may appear considerable, but is controlled by swabbing and closure of the incision. The incision has been closed with a continuous subcutaneous suture.
Image of 20.22
20.22 An approach to the dog with mucous membrane pallor. (Courtesy of L Holm and K Sturgess)
Image of A draining sinus is present in this Labrador Retriever, with cellulitis of the left maxilla secondary to a fractured maxillary carnassial tooth with pulp exposure.
A draining sinus is present in this Labrador Retriever, with cellulitis of the left maxilla secondary to a fractured maxillary carnassial tooth with pulp exposure. A draining sinus is present in this Labrador Retriever, with cellulitis of the left maxilla secondary to a fractured maxillary carnassial tooth with pulp exposure.
Image of Mild gingivitis and calculus accumulation can be seen on the buccal surfaces of the teeth.
Mild gingivitis and calculus accumulation can be seen on the buccal surfaces of the teeth. Mild gingivitis and calculus accumulation can be seen on the buccal surfaces of the teeth.
Image of Correct incisor occlusion.
Correct incisor occlusion. Correct incisor occlusion.
Image of Incisor malocclusion. This puppy has a mandibular prognathism, with the maxillary incisors biting into the oral soft tissues lingual to the mandibular incisors, causing trauma to the soft tissue.
Incisor malocclusion. This puppy has a mandibular prognathism, with the maxillary incisors biting into the oral soft tissues lingual to the mandibular incisors, causing trauma to the soft tissue. Incisor malocclusion. This puppy has a mandibular prognathism, with the maxillary incisors biting into the oral soft tissues lingual to the mandibular incisors, causing trauma to the soft tissue.
Image of Correct canine interlock.
Correct canine interlock. Correct canine interlock.
Image of Contact ulceration of the mucosa in a Bearded Collie with chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis.
Contact ulceration of the mucosa in a Bearded Collie with chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis. Contact ulceration of the mucosa in a Bearded Collie with chronic ulcerative paradental stomatitis.
Image of Severe inflammation of the gingiva (gingivitis) with hyperplasia of the maxillary fourth premolar and molar.
Severe inflammation of the gingiva (gingivitis) with hyperplasia of the maxillary fourth premolar and molar. Severe inflammation of the gingiva (gingivitis) with hyperplasia of the maxillary fourth premolar and molar.
Image of The correct way to open a dog’s mouth.
The correct way to open a dog’s mouth. The correct way to open a dog’s mouth.
Image of Maxillary molar affected by caries.
Maxillary molar affected by caries. Maxillary molar affected by caries.
Image of The dog is examined and findings are recorded on a dental chart by an assistant.
The dog is examined and findings are recorded on a dental chart by an assistant. The dog is examined and findings are recorded on a dental chart by an assistant.
Image of Full-size downloadable chart available to BSAVA members at www.bsava.com
Full-size downloadable chart available to BSAVA members at www.bsava.com Full-size downloadable chart available to BSAVA members at www.bsava.com
Image of The periodontal probe is held in a modified pen grip, as with all dental instruments except elevators and luxators. Graduations (millimetres) are marked on the end of a periodontal probe to enable measurements of the gingival sulcus.
The periodontal probe is held in a modified pen grip, as with all dental instruments except elevators and luxators. Graduations (millimetres) are marked on the end of a periodontal probe to enable measurements of the gingival sulcus. The periodontal probe is held in a modified pen grip, as with all dental instruments except elevators and luxators. Graduations (millimetres) are marked on the end of a periodontal probe to enable measurements of the gingival sulcus.
Image of Differently shaped dental explorer probes.
Differently shaped dental explorer probes. Differently shaped dental explorer probes.
Image of Hand scaler (left) and Gracey curette (right).
Hand scaler (left) and Gracey curette (right). Hand scaler (left) and Gracey curette (right).
Image of Untitled
Image of Cavitation is the formation of partial vacuums in the water, resulting in the pitting and wearing away of the calculus as a result of the collapse of these vacuums in the surrounding liquid.
Cavitation is the formation of partial vacuums in the water, resulting in the pitting and wearing away of the calculus as a result of the collapse of these vacuums in the surrounding liquid. Cavitation is the formation of partial vacuums in the water, resulting in the pitting and wearing away of the calculus as a result of the collapse of these vacuums in the surrounding liquid.
Image of Periodontal probe being used to check for gingivitis and probing depths on the maxillary right canine.
Periodontal probe being used to check for gingivitis and probing depths on the maxillary right canine. Periodontal probe being used to check for gingivitis and probing depths on the maxillary right canine.
Image of Pulp exposure in fractured and worn teeth. The explorer probe is used to check for defects in the crown.
Pulp exposure in fractured and worn teeth. The explorer probe is used to check for defects in the crown. Pulp exposure in fractured and worn teeth. The explorer probe is used to check for defects in the crown.
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Image of The side of the tip is used against the tooth surface. The fine water spray can also be seen.
The side of the tip is used against the tooth surface. The fine water spray can also be seen. The side of the tip is used against the tooth surface. The fine water spray can also be seen.
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Image of From left to right: Couplands 1 elevator; winged elevator; extraction forceps pattern 76N; Goldman Fox periosteal elevator; scalpel handle; scissors; needle holders; rat-toothed forceps.
From left to right: Couplands 1 elevator; winged elevator; extraction forceps pattern 76N; Goldman Fox periosteal elevator; scalpel handle; scissors; needle holders; rat-toothed forceps. From left to right: Couplands 1 elevator; winged elevator; extraction forceps pattern 76N; Goldman Fox periosteal elevator; scalpel handle; scissors; needle holders; rat-toothed forceps.
Image of High-speed turbine, water-cooled handpiece.
High-speed turbine, water-cooled handpiece. High-speed turbine, water-cooled handpiece.
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Couplands 1 elevator being used on the maxillary right first premolar.
Couplands 1 elevator being used on the maxillary right first premolar. Couplands 1 elevator being used on the maxillary right first premolar.
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Mandibular canine malocclusion in a 10-week-old puppy.
Mandibular canine malocclusion in a 10-week-old puppy. Mandibular canine malocclusion in a 10-week-old puppy.
Image of Persistent deciduous teeth (maxillary incisors, maxillary canine and mandibular canine) in a 6-month-old Yorkshire Terrier.
Persistent deciduous teeth (maxillary incisors, maxillary canine and mandibular canine) in a 6-month-old Yorkshire Terrier. Persistent deciduous teeth (maxillary incisors, maxillary canine and mandibular canine) in a 6-month-old Yorkshire Terrier.
Image of Positioning for radiography of the mandibular canine teeth.
Positioning for radiography of the mandibular canine teeth. Positioning for radiography of the mandibular canine teeth.
Image of Radiograph of deciduous mandibular canines, showing relative position to secondary canines and incisors.
Radiograph of deciduous mandibular canines, showing relative position to secondary canines and incisors. Radiograph of deciduous mandibular canines, showing relative position to secondary canines and incisors.
Image of This radiograph shows a persistent deciduous canine tooth, with no evidence of root resorption.
This radiograph shows a persistent deciduous canine tooth, with no evidence of root resorption. This radiograph shows a persistent deciduous canine tooth, with no evidence of root resorption.
Image of This radiograph shows a resorbing deciduous canine root.
This radiograph shows a resorbing deciduous canine root. This radiograph shows a resorbing deciduous canine root.
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Avoid placing the elevator in this position, as there is a risk of damage to the developing permanent canine tooth.
Avoid placing the elevator in this position, as there is a risk of damage to the developing permanent canine tooth. Avoid placing the elevator in this position, as there is a risk of damage to the developing permanent canine tooth.
Image of Extracted deciduous mandibular canines, showing the length of the crown relative to the length of the roots.
Extracted deciduous mandibular canines, showing the length of the crown relative to the length of the roots. Extracted deciduous mandibular canines, showing the length of the crown relative to the length of the roots.
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