Analgesia, sedation and anaesthesia | BSAVA Library

Analgesia, sedation and anaesthesia

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Rabbit owners expect a high level of care for their pets but many are reluctant to take advantage of referral and so general practitioners need to have a thorough understanding of analgesia and anaesthesia to minimize mortality and morbidity. This chapter covers useful critical care techniques and advances in rabbit analgesia, sedation and anaesthesia.

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10.2 Lidocaine and bupivacaine local block being applied to the spermatic cord prior to surgical castration of a rabbit.
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10.6 Syringe driver calibrated in mm/h capable of delivering fluid rates between 0.2 and 16.5 ml per hour, ideal for setting up continuous rate infusions.
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10.7 Bolus administration of fluids into the cephalic vein of a rabbit.
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10.10 Measuring the rectal temperature provides an essential benchmark when controlling hypothermia.
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10.11 An infant bottle warmer is an inexpensive way of keeping parenteral fluids and scrub solutions warm.
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10.13 Arterial blood sample being taken from the medial ear artery.
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10.15 Elevation of the thorax of a rabbit under anaesthesia. Chest elevation is important to aid respiration.
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10.16 Supplemental oxygen being given by facemask to a sedated rabbit.
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10.17 A rabbit in a cage that has been covered and placed in a quiet room after premedication. Sedated rabbits should be kept under close observation.
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10.18 Towel restraint is needed when performing mask induction with inhalant agents.
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10.21 An otoscope has been used to visualize the glottis, and lidocaine spray is being applied to the glottis.
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10.22 The endotracheal tube is introduced into the glottis.
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10.23 Endoscopic view of the glottis (G), epiglottis (E) and soft palate (SP).
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10.24 A supraglottic airway device is a suitable alternative to endotracheal intubation.
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10.25 Mechanical positive pressure ventilators can be used to improve oxygenation and ventilation under anaesthesia.
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10.26 The use of a stethoscope to monitor heart rate and respiratory rate during anaesthesia. Standard monitoring techniques should be routinely performed and compared with those provided by monitoring devices.
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10.27 Pulse oximetry probes can be placed on the tongue.
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10.28 A small dead space connector can be fixed on to the endotracheal tube and used for capnography.
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10.29 Blood pressure monitoring can provide useful information and allow anaesthetic depth and fluid therapy to be titrated to the requirements of the rabbit.
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10.31 Supplemental oxygen is important during recovery. Oxygen can be given by facemask after removal of the endotracheal tube.
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10.32 Rectal temperature recording is useful during recovery. Digital temperature recording devices provide a continuous readout of rectal temperature.
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