1887

fPre-anaesthetic medication and sedation

image of Pre-anaesthetic medication and sedation

Abstract

Sedation and pre-anaesthetic medication are part of the daily routine in small animal practice. It is important to understand the pharmacology of the different drugs used so that the most appropriate combination for each individual patient can be chosen. This chapter looks at aims of pre-anaesthetic medication and sedation, pharmacology, drugs used for pre-anaesthetic medication, drugs protocols, general recommendations to optimize pre-anaesthetic medication in cats and dogs, choosing the right drug combination, inadequate sedation and monitoring and support of the sedated patient.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/10.22233/9781910443231/9781910443231.13.html?itemId=/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443231.chap13&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah
/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443231.chap13

References

  1. Alibhai HI , Clarke KW , Lee YH et al. (1996) Cardiopulmonary effects of combinations of medetomidine hydrochloride and atropine sulphate in dogs. Veterinary Record 138 , 1112 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alvaides RK , Neto FJ , Aguiar AJ et al. (2008) Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of acepromazine or atropine given before dexmedetomidine in dogs. Veterinary Record 162 , 852856 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Brodbelt DC , Blissitt KJ , Hammond RA et al. (2008) The risk of death: the Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Small Animal Fatalities. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 35 , 365373 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Clarke KW , Trim CM and Hall LW (2014) Principles of sedation, anticholinergic agents, and principles of premedication. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia , 11th edn, ed. KW Clarke et al., pp. 7997. W.B. Saunders, London
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Drynan EA , Gray P and Raisis AL (2012) Incidence of seizures associated with the use of acepromazine in dogs undergoing myelography. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 22 , 262266 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dugdale A (2010) Small animal sedation and premedication. In: Veterinary Anaesthesia Principles to Practice , 1st edn, ed. A Dugdale, pp. 3045. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Harvey A and Tasker S (2013) BSAVA Manual of Feline Practice: A Foundation Manual BSAVA Publications, Gloucester
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Honkavaara JM , Restitutti F , Raekallio MR et al. (2010) The effects of increasing doses of MK-467, a peripheral alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine in conscious dogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 34 , 332337
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hunt JR , Grint NJ , Taylor PM et al. (2013) Sedative and analgesic effects of buprenorphine, combined with either acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, for premedication prior to elective surgery in cats and dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 40 , 297307 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hunyady KG and Johnson RA (2006) Anesthesia case of the month. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 229 , 12501253 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ilkiw JE , Suter CM , Farver TB et al. (1996) The behaviour of healthy awake cats following intravenous and intramuscular administration of midazolam. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 19 , 205216 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Joyce A and Yates D (2011) Help stop teenage pregnancy! Early-age neutering in cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 13 , 310 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Katz J , Clarke H and Seltzer S (2011) Preventive analgesia: quo vadimus? Anaesthesia and Analgesia 113 , 12421253 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kaul CL and Grewal RS (1970) Is epinephrine reversal a phenomenon purely of α-adrenergic block? Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie 186 , 363378
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kuusela E , Raekallio M , Anttila M et al. (2000) Clinical effects and pharmacokinetics of medetomidine and its enantiomers in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 23 , 1520 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lamata C , Loughton V , Jones M et al. (2012) The risk of passive regurgitation during general anaesthesia in a population of referred dogs in the UK. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 39 , 266274 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Murrell JC and Hellebrekers LJ (2005) Medetomidine and dexmedetomidine: a review of cardiovascular and antinociceptive effects in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 32 , 117127 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Mutoh T , Nishimura R and Sasaki N (2002) Effects of medetomidine-midazolam, midazolambutorphanol, or acepromazine-butorphanol as premedicants for mask induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 63 , 10221028 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nickerson M , Henry JW and Nomaguchi GM (1953) Blockade of responses to epinephrine and norepinephrine by dibenamine congeners. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 107 , 300309
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Pypendop BH and Verstegen JP (1998) Hemodynamic effects of medetomidine in the dog: a dose titration study. Veterinary Surgery 27 , 612622 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Pypendop BH and Verstegen JP (1999) Cardiorespiratory effects of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 60 , 11481154
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ramoo S , Bradbury LA , Anderson GA et al. (2013) Sedation of hyperthyroid cats with subcutaneous administration of a combination of alfaxalone and butorphanol. Australian Veterinary Journal 91 , 131136 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rauser P , Pfeifr J , Proks P et al. (2012) Effect of medetomidine-butorphanol and dexmedetomidine-butorphanol combinations on intraocular pressure in healthy dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 39 , 301305 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ribas T , Bublot I , Junot S et al. (2015) Effects of intramuscular sedation with alfaxalone and butorphanol on echocardiographic measurements in healthy cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 17 , 530536 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Rishniw M , Tobias AH and Slinker BK (1996) Characterization of chronotropic and dysrhythmogenic effects of atropine in dogs with bradycardia. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 , 337341
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Robinson KJ , Jones RS and Cripps PJ (2001) Effects of medetomidine and buprenorphine administered for sedation in dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice 42 , 444447 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Santos LC , Ludders JW , Erb HN et al. (2010) Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine administered to cats via the oral transmucosal or intramuscular routes. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 37 , 417424 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Sinclair MD and Dyson DH (2012) The impact of acepromazine on the efficacy of crystalloid, dextran or ephedrine treatment in hypotensive dogs under isoflurane anesthesia. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 39 , 563573 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Thurmon JC , Tranquilli WJ and Benson GJ (2007) Lumb & Jones’ Veterinary Anaesthesia , 4th edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Valverde A , Cantwell S , Hernandez J et al. (2004) Effects of acepromazine on the incidence of vomiting associated with opioid administration in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 31 , 102108 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Wilson DV , Evans AT , Carpenter RE et al. (2004) The effect of four anaesthetic protocols on splenic size in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 31 , 4045 [Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]

More like this

/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443231.chap13
dcterms_title,dcterms_description
-contentType:Journal
5
5
Loading ...

Loading ...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error