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Gastrointestinal, laparoscopic and liver procedures

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Abstract

The gastrointestinal system consists of all structures from the oral cavity to the rectum, including associated exocrine and endocrine glands. It supplies the body with water and nutrients and allows waste material to be excreted. Dysfunction of the system therefore results in inadequate nutrition and water balance, which can lead to a variety of metabolic changes that need to be considered and corrected before the patient is anaesthetized. This chapter deals with the oesophagus, the stomach and intestines, the liver, pancreatic disease, peritonitis, visceral pain and obesity.

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Figures

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24.1 (a) Right lateral radiograph of a dog showing a radio-opaque oesophageal foreign body at the level of the heart base. (b) The same foreign body viewed on oesophagoscopy. (Courtesy of Internal Medicine Service, Royal Veterinary College, London, UK)
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24.2 Correct positioning of a patient at risk of regurgitation before endotracheal intubation.
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24.3 Marked oesophagitis and oesophageal trauma after endoscopically-guided removal of a foreign body. (Courtesy of Internal Medicine Service, Royal Veterinary College, London, UK)
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24.4 Management of regurgitation during anaesthesia by lavaging the oesophagus with warm saline followed by gentle suctioning using a syringe and urinary catheter. Note the head-down position of the patient. (Courtesy of Marieke de Vries, Davies Veterinary Specialists, Higham Gobion, UK)
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24.5 Attempted passage of a stomach tube using a tube gag.
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24.6 Diagram showing positioning of a dog on a perineal stand for perineal surgery. Note the sandbag under the pubis. This raises the abdomen a little, decreases intra-abdominal pressure and permits the diaphragm to move more easily. If used, care must be taken to avoid too much tension on the leg ties to prevent nerve and muscle damage. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and are printed with her permission.
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24.9 Dog in the ‘praying’ position typical of cranial abdominal pain. (Courtesy of Marieke de Vries, Davies Veterinary Specialists, Higham Gobion, UK)

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