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Laboratory evaluation of lipid disorders

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Abstract

Increased plasma cholesterol and/or triglyceride concentration in the fasted state is a relatively common abnormality detected in dogs, and less frequently in feline patients, and is termed hyperlipidaemia…This chapter reviews normal lipid metabolism and the clinical assessment of lipid/lipoprotein disorders in dogs and cats. The following topics are addresssed: Normal lipid metabolism, hyperlipidaemia, hypolipidaemia, investigation of hyperlipidaemia and laboratory effects of hyperlipidaemia. The chapter includes case examples.

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Figures

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15.1 Schematic illustration of a lipoprotein molecule. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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15.2 Relative size and composition of canine and feline lipoproteins. HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; VLDL = very ––low-density lipoprotein. (Data from ) Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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15.3 Normal lipid metabolism. apo = apolipoprotein; CETP = cholesteryl ester transfer protein (cats only); HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LCAT = lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; VLDL = very low-density lipoprotein. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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15.5 (a) Arcus lipoides in a 1-year-old Labrador Retriever. A stippled white penumbra of lipid can be seen circumferentially at the margin of the cornea. (b) Lipid aqueous in a dog with diabetes mellitus. The anterior chamber is obscured by the presence of lipid within the aqueous which is opacifying it. (Courtesy of David Gould)
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15.7 A cream-coloured layer of chylomicrons above an opalescent plasma sample containing VLDLs, obtained from a dog with concurrent diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism.
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15.9 Normal lipoprotein electrophoretic pattern of peaks in the normal dog and cat with corresponding lipoprotein classes. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.

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