Diseases of muscle and the neuromuscular junction

image of Diseases of muscle and the neuromuscular junction
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Orthopaedic disorders occur more frequently than neuromuscular diseases, but when a diagnosis cannot be reached following thorough orthopaedic evaluation, disorders of muscle and the neuromuscular junction should be considered. This chapter focuses on the most commonly encountered neuromuscular disorders with particular emphasis on those that can present as lameness.

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10.2 Fresh-frozen biopsy sample from the vastus lateralis muscle of a dog with chronic inflammatory myopathy. Note the fibrosis and diffuse mononuclear cell infiltration with a perimysial and endomysial distribution (*), as well as the invasion of non-necrotic fibres by cellular infiltrates (arrowed). (Haematoxylin and eosin stain; original magnification X)
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10.3 Severe loss of muscle mass in a Dalmatian with chronic inflammatory myopathy.
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10.5 Young Japanese Spitz diagnosed with muscular dystrophy associated with a truncated form of dystrophin. Note the hunched posture with pelvic limbs tucked under the body. (Courtesy of Professor Boyd Jones)
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10.6 Fresh-frozen biopsy specimen from the biceps femoris muscle of a 10-month-old Domestic Shorthaired cat with clinical signs of muscle weakness and hypertrophy from an early age. There is variation in myofibre size, endomysial fibrosis and degenerating fibres; a calcific deposit is arrowed. (Haematoxylin and eosin stain; original magnification X)
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10.7 Numerous calcific deposits were found on the tongue of a young Domestic Shorthaired cat with muscular dystrophy associated with dystrophin deficiency. (Courtesy of Dr Randy Longshore)
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10.8 Examples of immunofluorescence staining performed on muscle biopsy cryosections for the diagnosis of various forms of muscular dystrophy. Sarcolemmal staining for dystrophin (rod) was absent, confirming a dystrophin deficient muscular dystrophy. Staining of the basal lamina for laminin α2 and of the sarcolemma for sarcoglycan and spectrin were similar to the control muscle sample. The arrow in the upper left image shows the positively stained basal lamina.
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10.9 Muscle contracture resulted in pelvic limb stiffness and rigidity in a young cat with congenital muscular dystrophy, resulting from a deficiency of laminin α2 (merosin). (Courtesy of Dr Dennis O’Brien)
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10.10 An 11-month-old female neutered Labrador Retriever with multiple joint deformities, resulting from deficiency of collagen VI. Note the hyperextended stifle and tarsus. (Courtesy of Dr Katia Marioni-Henry)
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10.12 A 10-year-old female neutered Standard Poodle with pelvic limb spasticity associated with hyperadrenocorticism. Electrophysiology was consistent with a myotonia associated with this endocrine disorder. (Courtesy of Dr Joan Coates)
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10.13 Muscle stiffness observed in a young Miniature Schnauzer with myotonia congenita. This condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait in this breed and is associated with a mutation in the gene.
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10.14 A young Labrador Retriever diagnosed with centronuclear myopathy. Note that its neck muscles are too weak to lift its head. (Courtesy of Dr Joan Coates and Dr Dennis O’Brien)
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10.15 A young Beagle with Musladin-Lueke syndrome. The puppy appears to be walking on the digits of all four limbs. (Courtesy of Dr Rebecca Packer)
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