Lameness examination

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This chapter assesses different approaches to lameness investigation, covering key causes of lameness, history-taking, hands-off examination, hands-on examination, examination of the thoracic limb, examination of the pelvic limb and common methods for further investigation to reach a definitive diagnosis.

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2.3 Algorithm for lameness investigation. CT = computed tomography; MRI = magnetic resonance imaging; ROM = range of movement.
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2.9 Elements of the hands-on orthopaedic examination.
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2.10 The use of the Gulick tape measure to assess upper thigh circumference. It is spring-loaded to a fixed tension and allows accurate, comparable and repeatable measurements.
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2.15 Digital clumping is observed in cases of partial calcaneal tendon failure where the superficial digital flexor tendon remains intact. Area shaved for ultrasound examination.
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2.16 A positive sit test, commonly seen in association with CCL disease, is a non-specific finding in dogs with stifle pathology that causes discomfort on flexion.
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