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Diseases and disorders of bone

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Abstract

This chapter addresses a variety of metabolic bone diseases and some otherwise poorly categorized bone disorders such as bone cysts and infarcts. Metabolic bone diseases affect all parts of the skeleton to different degrees and all can cause lameness. This chapter covers common hyperostotic and osteopenic conditions.

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Figures

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7.2 An early and fairly subtle panosteitis lesion in the proximal humeral diaphysis.
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7.3 Severe panosteitis lesion affecting the entire ulna with increased medullary bone opacity, loss of corticomedullary distinction and thickened ulnar cortices.
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7.4 Panosteitis of the right femur. Note the increased opacity of the mid-femoral diaphysis of the right femur (left of the image), with subtly patchy texture and reduced corticomedullary distinction; compare with the left femur.
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7.5 A 5-month-old Border Collie with metaphyseal osteopathy, showing marked swelling of the metaphyseal areas of the distal and proximal antebrachia.
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7.6 Radiographs of the left antebrachium of a puppy with metaphyseal osteopathy, showing typical changes to the distal ulnar and radial metaphyses; there are radiopaque and radiolucent zones immediately parallel and adjacent to the physes, and there is a small amount of periosteal mineralization of the caudolateral ulnar metaphysis.
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7.7 Skull radiograph showing proliferative palisading periosteal bone affecting the mandible of a dog with craniomandibular osteopathy. There is also smooth laminated bone production over the frontal and parietal bones.
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7.8 Skull radiograph of a West Highland White Terrier with craniomandibular osteopathy. Bone production is isolated to the petrous–tympanic area and there is some thickening of the frontal/parietal bones.
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7.9 (a) CT image showing a transverse slice through the skull just caudal to the temporomandibular joint of a dog suffering from severe craniomandibular osteopathy; a large amount of new bone formation is seen (circled) with secondary deviation/deformation of the overlying soft tissues and the oropharynx. (b) Three-dimensional volume rendered image of the skull of the same dog viewed ventrally; severe thickening of the entire ventral mandible (arrowed) is seen in addition to the remodelling in the region of the right temporomandibular joint (circled). (Courtesy of Gordon Brown)
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7.10 Spondylosis caused by extensive intervertebral exostoses in a 12-year-old cat with hypervitaminosis A. The first rib and sternum also show new bone deposition.
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7.11 (a) Palisading new bone formation, mainly affecting the abaxial aspects of metacarpal bones 2 and 5, in a dog with hypertrophic osteopathy. (b) Anatomical specimen of a dog suffering from hypertrophic osteopathy; note the periosteal new bone affecting the pes, tarsus and crus.
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7.12 Infarcts in the distal tibia of an 11-year-old crossbreed dog. The contralateral tibia was affected by a poorly differentiated bone tumour.
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7.13 Radiograph of the tibia of a mature dog presenting with a history of discharging sinuses. A sequestrum is present (arrowed) surrounded by an involucrum. There is massive hypertrophy of the fibula.
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7.15 (a) Proliferative osteomyelitic skeletal lesion in a cat with infection. (b) A pulmonary granulomatous lesion was also present in the caudal lung lobes (arrowed).
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7.17 Schematic diagram of calcium homeostasis. Ca = calcium ions; PTH = parathyroid hormone.
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7.18 Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a 6-month-old Yorkshire Terrier. The dog had recent bilateral radial and ulnar fractures, healed femoral, humeral and pelvic fractures, a fused cervical spine and a plantigrade stance.
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7.20 ‘Ghost-like’ bones of a dog with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. The density of the bone is similar to that of the soft tissue density of the pads. There are radial and ulnar fractures and a healed mid-diaphyseal humeral fracture.
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7.21 An osteopenic skull and the appearance of ‘floating teeth’ in a cat with renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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7.22 The metabolic pathway of vitamin D.
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7.24 Epiphyseal widening, or cup-shaped growth plates, in a kitten with congenital rickets (vitamin D-dependent type II) caused by a deficiency or lack of binding to vitamin D receptors.
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7.25 A bone cyst (arrowed) in the distal ulna of a 3-year-old Boxer. The dog presented lame after fracture of the cyst wall (arrowhead).
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7.26 Polyostotic multicameral bone cysts (fibrous dysplasia) (arrowed) affecting the distal radius and ulna in a Dobermann. A pathological fracture is present (arrowhead).

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