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Weakness and seizures

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Abstract

Weakness and seizures are often the result of a chronic disease process. In cases of weakness without accompanying specific clinical signs, it is not always easy to decide which diagnostic measure is appropriate. It is important to be aware of the range of possible neurological disorders underlying weakness. This chapter provides a guideline for immediate life saving measures and a possible step-by-step diagnostic workup. : Amazon parrot with lead toxicosis; Liver failure in an Indian Hill Mynah; Heart disease in an African Grey Parrot; Weakness in a wild Common Buzzard.

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Figures

Image of Lateral view of an Amazon parrot with weakness and apathy. In addition to some normal grit stones, radiodense material is also present in the ventriculus (arrowed). Parrots are highly susceptible to heavy metal intoxication.
Lateral view of an Amazon parrot with weakness and apathy. In addition to some normal grit stones, radiodense material is also present in the ventriculus (arrowed). Parrots are highly susceptible to heavy metal intoxication. Lateral view of an Amazon parrot with weakness and apathy. In addition to some normal grit stones, radiodense material is also present in the ventriculus (arrowed). Parrots are highly susceptible to heavy metal intoxication.
Image of Indian Hill Mynah with weakness. (a) Lateral view showing a massive swelling. (b) Ultrasonography via a ventromedial approach (10 MHz and 4 cm examination depth) confirmed the mass to be a soft tissue swelling, with an echotexture that corresponded to the liver tissue.
Indian Hill Mynah with weakness. (a) Lateral view showing a massive swelling. (b) Ultrasonography via a ventromedial approach (10 MHz and 4 cm examination depth) confirmed the mass to be a soft tissue swelling, with an echotexture that corresponded to the liver tissue. Indian Hill Mynah with weakness. (a) Lateral view showing a massive swelling. (b) Ultrasonography via a ventromedial approach (10 MHz and 4 cm examination depth) confirmed the mass to be a soft tissue swelling, with an echotexture that corresponded to the liver tissue.
Image of African Grey Parrot presented with weakness and incoordination. (a) Lateral view demonstrating an increased cardiac shadow (1), as well as a soft tissue mass (2) in front of the ventriculus/intestines (3). (b) Ultrasonography via a ventromedial approach (10 MHz and 6 cm examination depth). The left heart chamber (4) is severely distended, and the walls are thin (arrowed). The right chamber (5) appears unremarkable, and some fluid can be seen in the coelomic cavity (6).
African Grey Parrot presented with weakness and incoordination. (a) Lateral view demonstrating an increased cardiac shadow (1), as well as a soft tissue mass (2) in front of the ventriculus/intestines (3). (b) Ultrasonography via a ventromedial approach (10 MHz and 6 cm examination depth). The left heart chamber (4) is severely distended, and the walls are thin (arrowed). The right chamber (5) appears unremarkable, and some fluid can be seen in the coelomic cavity (6). African Grey Parrot presented with weakness and incoordination. (a) Lateral view demonstrating an increased cardiac shadow (1), as well as a soft tissue mass (2) in front of the ventriculus/intestines (3). (b) Ultrasonography via a ventromedial approach (10 MHz and 6 cm examination depth). The left heart chamber (4) is severely distended, and the walls are thin (arrowed). The right chamber (5) appears unremarkable, and some fluid can be seen in the coelomic cavity (6).
Image of (a) Wild Common Buzzard presented weak and depressed. (b) A lateral view did not reveal any indication for a trauma as the cause of the bird’s inability to fly, but the intestinal system is almost empty and stony material can be seen in the ventriculus.
(a) Wild Common Buzzard presented weak and depressed. (b) A lateral view did not reveal any indication for a trauma as the cause of the bird’s inability to fly, but the intestinal system is almost empty and stony material can be seen in the ventriculus. (a) Wild Common Buzzard presented weak and depressed. (b) A lateral view did not reveal any indication for a trauma as the cause of the bird’s inability to fly, but the intestinal system is almost empty and stony material can be seen in the ventriculus.

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