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Optimizing neutering programmes

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Abstract

When practising shelter or charity medicine, often the population concerns are of prime importance; however, it is essential to bear in mind individual factors too. This chapter covers reasons for neutering shelter animals, physiology of kittens and puppies, anaesthesia, surgical approach and evaluating the impact of preadoption neutering in shelters. General anaesthetic protocols for early neutering.

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Figures

Image of 6.5
6.5 Penis of an early-neutered cat. Note the absence of spines and persistence of the balanopreputial fold. (© David Yates)
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6.8 An abandoned cat with a litter of kittens. The kittens will be neutered in several weeks’ time. When they are housed for neutering, they can remain together in one cage. Group housing of litters reduces the burden on cage space at the shelter and reduces stress to the animals. Furthermore, the kittens and dam can recover from anaesthesia for neutering together, which will reduce heat loss. (© David Yates)
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6.10 A selection of small-diameter uncuffed endotracheal tubes, each with a Murphy eye at the distal end. Tubes with a Murphy eye are preferable as this allows gas to flow through the tube should the bevel become obstructed or positioned up against the trachea wall. A laryngoscope with a short paediatric blade will assist with intubation. (Courtesy of T Annison, ACE Veterinary Supplies Ltd)
Image of 6.11
6.11 Local analgesia can be provided by intratesticular injection before castration in the dog and cat. The dose of lidocaine should not exceed 2 mg/kg. For example, in cats 0.1 ml/kg of a 2% lidocaine solution can be divided between the testes and then infiltrated subcutaneously on withdrawal of the needle. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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6.12 A prepubertal kitten with a testis in the inguinal region. (© David Yates)
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6.13 The same kitten as shown in Figure 6.12 with the right testis pushed into the scrotum by applying digital pressure. (© David Yates)
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6.14 Haemostasis in an open cat castration can be achieved by tying together the testicular blood vessel and vas deferens. (© David Yates)
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6.15 An absorbable ligature may be also be used to achieve haemostasis. This image shows an open castration. (© David Yates)
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6.16 Some veterinary surgeons may prefer to perform an instrument tie using mosquito forceps, as in this closed castration. (© David Yates)
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6.17 In female kittens undergoing neutering, the bladder should be expressed before surgery to prevent accidental perforation and to aid visualization of the uterus. (© David Yates)
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6.18 Landmarks for making the surgical incision in kittens less than 12 weeks of age are shifted slightly caudally for a midline ovariohysterectomy compared with their positions in older patients. (© David Yates)
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6.19 (a) The first ovary is located and a window made in the broad ligament to enable placement of a ligature. (b) Using gentle traction, the second uterine horn is exteriorized. (c) Once both ovarian pedicles have been ligated and transected, the cervix can be clamped and ligated. (© David Yates)
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6.21 The ovarian suspensory ligament is readily exteriorized in the pregnant queen. Although the blood vessels are engorged, multiple haemostats can be applied to facilitate haemostasis. (© David Yates)
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6.22 This queen was neutered late in pregnancy, at approximately 8 weeks of gestation. Several weeks after surgery, a mammary cyst required aspiration. (© David Yates)
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6.25 (a) Castration of prepubertal puppies generally requires a smaller incision and less vascular surgery than in older dogs. (b) A prescrotal approach is generally used in prepubertal puppies, as for adult castrations. (c) Prepubertal puppies lack the vascularity and fibrous tissue present in older dogs. (d) Intradermal sutures will improve postoperative comfort and promote healing. (Courtesy of R Elmore)
Image of Accurate digital scales are essential for safe prepubertal neutering. The volumes of injectable agents may be calculated from charts that convert patient bodyweight to body surface area (see below). (© David Yates)
Accurate digital scales are essential for safe prepubertal neutering. The volumes of injectable agents may be calculated from charts that convert patient bodyweight to body surface area (see below). (© David Yates) Accurate digital scales are essential for safe prepubertal neutering. The volumes of injectable agents may be calculated from charts that convert patient bodyweight to body surface area (see below). (© David Yates)
Image of Kitten growth chart developed at the RSPCA Greater Manchester Animal Hospital. Ideally, the bodyweight of all the kittens in a litter should lie between the two extremes.
Kitten growth chart developed at the RSPCA Greater Manchester Animal Hospital. Ideally, the bodyweight of all the kittens in a litter should lie between the two extremes. Kitten growth chart developed at the RSPCA Greater Manchester Animal Hospital. Ideally, the bodyweight of all the kittens in a litter should lie between the two extremes.
Image of This syringe has an additional projection on the plunger, which is useful for reducing dead space in the hub. (© David Yates)
This syringe has an additional projection on the plunger, which is useful for reducing dead space in the hub. (© David Yates) This syringe has an additional projection on the plunger, which is useful for reducing dead space in the hub. (© David Yates)
Image of The volume of each agent in the quad protocol increases in a non-linear relationship with bodyweight. This improves the reliability of the combination in smaller animals (<1.5 kg) and reduces the amount of anaesthetic required in postpubertal patients (likely to be >3 kg). The graph shows the volume of medetomidine (600 µg/m2) used in the quad protocol compared with the linear dosing (80 µg/kg) used in the ‘cat triple’ protocol.
The volume of each agent in the quad protocol increases in a non-linear relationship with bodyweight. This improves the reliability of the combination in smaller animals (<1.5 kg) and reduces the amount of anaesthetic required in postpubertal patients (likely to be >3 kg). The graph shows the volume of medetomidine (600 µg/m2) used in the quad protocol compared with the linear dosing (80 µg/kg) used in the ‘cat triple’ protocol. The volume of each agent in the quad protocol increases in a non-linear relationship with bodyweight. This improves the reliability of the combination in smaller animals (<1.5 kg) and reduces the amount of anaesthetic required in postpubertal patients (likely to be >3 kg). The graph shows the volume of medetomidine (600 µg/m) used in the quad protocol compared with the linear dosing (80 µg/kg) used in the ‘cat triple’ protocol.
Image of Protection of the globe using an ocular lubricant. Anaesthetic combinations containing ketamine may increase the likelihood of corneal desiccation during surgery. (© David Yates)
Protection of the globe using an ocular lubricant. Anaesthetic combinations containing ketamine may increase the likelihood of corneal desiccation during surgery. (© David Yates) Protection of the globe using an ocular lubricant. Anaesthetic combinations containing ketamine may increase the likelihood of corneal desiccation during surgery. (© David Yates)
Image of Puppy premedicated before induction for castration. (© David Yates)
Puppy premedicated before induction for castration. (© David Yates) Puppy premedicated before induction for castration. (© David Yates)

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