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Managing feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis in the multi-cat/shelter environment

image of Managing feline coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis in the multi-cat/shelter environment
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Abstract

Feline infectious peritonitis is a serious and fatal disease that arises as a consequence of infection with feline coronavirus. This chapter covers presentation and clinical signs, diagnostic testing, differential diagnoses, treatment, prevention and management following confirmation of feline infectious peritonitis in a shelter. Toxoplasmosis.

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Figures

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18.2 Schematic diagram illustrating the potential outcomes of FCoV infection. * The required mutation(s) may be more likely to occur in cats carrying high FCoV loads; therefore, limiting the enviromental burden of FCoV and, thus, potentially, infection doses may be beneficial to help prevent FIP. (Modified from )
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18.3 Appearance of granulomas on the kidney of a cat that was euthanased due to suspected dry FIP.
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18.4 This 1-year-old male neutered Domestic Shorthaired Cat had a 2-week history of inappetence, lethargy and weight loss. Bilateral uveitis and renomegaly were found on clinical examination. Ultrasonography showed the presence of retroperitoneal and pericardial fluid. A diagnosis of FIP was confirmed on post-mortem examination.
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18.5 (a) This 16-week-old kitten has been euthanased due to suspected FIP; a marked abdominal effusion was present. (b) The kitten is placed on its back ready for post-mortem examination. Abdominal distension due to the effusion is evident. (c) A midline incision has been made into the skin and the skin has been retracted laterally to allow visualization of the chest and abdomen. An incision into the abdominal cavity has already been made in error here, resulting in some pale yellow abdominal effusion leaking out, as seen at the bottom of the photograph. (d) A small incision has been made into the abdominal cavity in the midline. (e) Scissors are used to extend the midline incision cranially and caudally. (f) Visualization of the abdominal cavity shows a large amount of pale yellow abdominal effusion together with multiple whitish fibrin tags. A syringe can be used to collect fluid from the abdominal cavity. (g) Further opening of the abdominal cavity shows extensive fibrin tags to be present. Additionally, granulomatous lesions can be appreciated on a section of large intestine (arrowed). (h) Further evaluation of the abdominal cavity shows clear granulomas (arrowed) on the small intestine. The chest has also been opened, showing fibrinous deposits on the lung surface.
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18.6 Typical yellow straw-like colour of FIP-associated effusion fluid. This sample has been shaken to reveal the frothy nature of the fluid. These fluids are typically high in protein (>35 g/l) with an albumin:globulin ratio of <0.4, and have poor cellularity (usually <5 x 10 cells/l).
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18.8 This communal space in a shelter cattery contains shared litter trays. In addition, direct contact is possible between the communally housed cats and the cats kept in pens. Both of these features are risk factors for the transmission of FCoV; in addition, communal housing can be more stressful for cats who are not accustomed to living with other cats.
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18.9 Barrier care in a shelter. Staff wearing (a) disposable overalls, aprons, gloves and overshoes for entering a cat pen and (b) disposable gloves, over-sleeves and aprons for clinical examinations. (© Cats Protection)
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18.10 Example of an individual housing pen containing a cat basket in which the cat can hide.
Image of Uveitis can be a feature of clinical toxoplasmosis, as is the case in this Domestic Longhaired Cat. (© Sarah Caney)
Uveitis can be a feature of clinical toxoplasmosis, as is the case in this Domestic Longhaired Cat. (© Sarah Caney) Uveitis can be a feature of clinical toxoplasmosis, as is the case in this Domestic Longhaired Cat. (© Sarah Caney)
Image of Detection of tachyzoites in cerebrospinal fluid is diagnostic for clinical toxoplasmosis.
Detection of tachyzoites in cerebrospinal fluid is diagnostic for clinical toxoplasmosis. Detection of tachyzoites in cerebrospinal fluid is diagnostic for clinical toxoplasmosis.

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