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Pleural drainage techniques

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Abstract

This chapter covers anatomy and physiology, pleural drainage techniques, and clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of a range of diseases involving the partial and visceral pleura and pleural cavity. : Needle thoracocentesis; Small-bore wire-guided chest drain placement in a closed chest; Chest drain placement in an open chest.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443347.chap12

Figures

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12.1 Three-chamber underwater seal system.
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12.2 Pneumothorax in a dog. This lateral radiograph demonstrates elevation of the heart from the sternum. The lungs are retracted away from the thoracic wall and partially collapsed.
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12.3 Unilateral left tension pneumothorax in a dog. This transverse computed tomographic image demonstrates a large volume of air in the left pleural cavity causing almost complete collapse of the left lung lobes, a right mediastinal shift and caudal displacement of the diaphragm: 1.5 litres of air was subsequently drained by thoracocentesis from the left pleural cavity.
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12.4 Pleural effusion in a cat. This lateral radiograph demonstrates outlining of the ventral lung borders by fluid. The cardiac silhouette is also partially obscured.
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12.6 Unilateral pyothorax in a cat, shown on a ventrodorsal radiograph.
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12.7 Pleural effusion from a cat with pyothorax. Note the degenerative neutrophils, and intra- and extracellular bacteria.
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12.8 Lateral (a) radiograph and (b) sagittal computed tomographic image and (c) dorsoventral radiograph of a cat with a penetrating foreign body in the distal oesophagus removed via a right 10th intercostal thoracotomy. (d) The preoperative imaging was critical in determining the tract of the foreign body and therefore whether a lateral thoracotomy approach would be preferable to a median sternotomy.
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12.9 (a) Lateral and (b) dorsoventral radiographs of a cat with chronic chylothorax. Note the small rounded radiodense lung lobes visible on each view. This appearance is due to chronic fibrosis of the visceral pleura secondary to chylothorax.
Image of Thoracocentesis equipment. If an over-the-needle catheter is used instead of a butterfly cannula, a separate extension tube is also required.
Thoracocentesis equipment. If an over-the-needle catheter is used instead of a butterfly cannula, a separate extension tube is also required. Thoracocentesis equipment. If an over-the-needle catheter is used instead of a butterfly cannula, a separate extension tube is also required.
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