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Liver: hepatocellular and biliary tract disorders

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Abstract

This chapter describes the structure and function of the liver and gall bladder, including differences between dogs and cats, and considers the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of hepatobiliary diseases.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443361-3e.chap37a

Figures

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37.1 Anatomy of the liver with portal blood supply. The right branch of the portal vein supplies the right lateral lobe and caudate process of the caudate lobe (right division). The left branch divides further, with a central branch supplying the right medial and quadrate lobes (central division) and the left branch supplying the left medial and lateral lobes and the papillary process of the caudate lobe (left division). (Reproduced from the ) Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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37.3 Rappaport scheme of the hepatic functional lobule (acinus), organized according to biochemical considerations. This is centred on a line connecting two portal triads and describes functional zones radiating from the triad to the central vein. For example, zone 1 cells are responsible for protein synthesis, urea and cholesterol production, gluconeogenesis, bile formation and β-oxidation of fatty acids; zone 2 cells also produce albumin and are actively involved in glycolysis and pigment formation; and zone 3 cells are the major site of liponeogenesis, ketogenesis and drug metabolism. Zone 3 hepatocytes, being furthest from the hepatic artery and hepatic portal veins, also have the lowest oxygen supply and are therefore most likely to suffer hypoxic damage. Arrows show the direction of blood flow. The portal triad comprises one or more branches of the bile duct (green), hepatic artery (red), and hepatic portal vein (violet). (Reproduced from with permission from Mosby)
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37.5 Ptyalism, as demonstrated by this American Cocker Spaniel, can be a sign of nausea or hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease.
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37.10 Bedlington Terrier with copper storage disease.
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37.12 Histological section of canine liver stained for copper with rhodanine stain. Note the pink-staining copper granules in hepatocytes. (Courtesy of Fernando Constantino-Casas, Pathology Department, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge)
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37.17 Cytological appearance of severe hepatic lipidosis in a cat. Note the great accumulation of fat globules in hepatocytes. (Giemsa stain; original magnification X1000.) (Courtesy of Elizabeth Villiers)
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37.18 Cat with hepatic lipidosis with a gastrostomy tube in place.
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37.20 Gross appearance of a gall bladder mucocoele which was an incidental finding at post-mortem examination in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. The gall bladder has been opened to reveal the mucocoele. (Courtesy of Fernando Constantino-Casas, Pathology Department, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge)
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37.22 Samples of urine (two pots on the left) and gall bladder bile (two pots on the right) from a cat with chronic biliary tract obstruction due to a stricture of the common bile duct. Note the grossly abnormal pale appearance of the bile due to reduced excretion of bilirubin into the bile. This is not unusual in cats with chronic biliary obstruction. The serum and urine contained a large amount of bilirubin, so it is assumed that the bilirubin transporters in this case had moved from the luminal surface of the bile ducts to the hepatic side.

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