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Endoscopy

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Abstract

This chapter describes the equipment and technique for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and explains the role of flexible and rigid endoscopy of the GI tract. Upper and lower GI endoscopy, normal appearance, technique for endoscopic biopsy, diagnostic laparoscopy and specialized techniques are also covered.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443361-3e.chap4

Figures

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4.1 Three foreign body retrieval devices. (a) ‘Alligator jaws’; (b) ‘shark’s tooth’; (c) W-type coin retrieval device. (Reproduced from , with permission from the publisher)
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4.2 Endoscopic view of the gastric lumen before it is insufflated. Large rugal folds obscure the majority of the gastric mucosa, preventing thorough examination for gastric mucosal lesions.
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4.3 (a) Endoscopic view of a partially insufflated gastric lumen. Compare this image with Figure 4.2 ; more of the gastric mucosa can be visualized here. (b) Endoscopic view of a properly insufflated gastric lumen. The gastric lumen can be thoroughly examined now, but this degree of insufflation will soon cause hypoventilation and increased gastric peristalsis.
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4.4 Endoscopic view of a normal canine antrum with the pylorus seen at the back of the antrum.
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4.5 Endoscopic view of normal duodenal mucosa showing the texture caused by the villi. Compare the mucosal texture seen in this image with that seen in Figures 4.2 4.4 .
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4.6 Endoscopic view of the feline ileocaecal region. Biopsy forceps have been passed into the ileum. The caecum is represented by the blind pouch below the biopsy forceps.
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4.7 Rigid biopsy forceps are ideal to obtain submucosal tissue when biopsying infiltrative, anorectal lesions.
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4.8 Endoscopic view of a normal feline oesophagus showing the ‘ribbed’ appearance where the oesophagus has smooth muscle.
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4.9 Endoscopic view of a normal canine duodenum showing the major duodenal papilla.
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4.10 Endoscopic view of a normal canine duodenum showing a lymphoid follicle (i.e. a so called ‘Peyer’s patch’) (arrowed).
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4.11 Endoscopic view of normal canine colonic mucosa showing submucosal blood vessels and residual faecal matter.
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4.12 Endoscopic view of the canine ileocaecal region. The biopsy forceps are being passed into the ileum. The caecocolic orifice is below (arrowed).

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