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Ocular disorders

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Abstract

Ocular disorders are commonly observed in both elasmobranch and teleost fishes. Even the novice fish hobbyist will readily discern a discoloured, cloudy, ulcerated or disproportionate eye. This chapter considers anatomy, investigations, systemic approach and causative agents.

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Figures

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Figure 18.1 General anatomy of the teleost eye. (© Helen MacFarlane, Johns Hopkins Art as Applied to Medicine.)
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Figure 18.3 The bubble-eye variety of fancy goldfish has very bulbous eyes due to fluid in the periorbital area. (© W.H. Wildgoose.)
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Figure 18.4 The fundus is best examined using indirect ophthalmoscopy. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.5 Severe corneal ulceration is often seen without the aid of special stains. This cornea is opaque due to oedema. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.6 Exophthalmos and a severe corneal ulcer are being treated with ophthalmic gentamicin sulphate in this squirrelfish. The fluorescent green coloration of the cornea is due to retention of fluorescein dye. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.7 Hypermature cataract in a red-eyed guarti. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.8 A fish lens affected by a cataract is extremely hard and must be removed completely, as seen in this squirrelfish. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.9 A guarti 3 weeks after removal of the lens. A small amount of corneal opacity remains at the site of the incision. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.10 Uveitis in a squirrelfish. Hyphaema and gas are also present within the eye. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.11 Bilateral exophthalmos in a freshwater angelfish with systemic infection. Unilateral exophthalmos is often suggestive of localized disease. (© Brent Whitaker)
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Figure 18.12 Periorbital gas is easily visible in this mummichog. The condition is caused by supersaturation of the water with air. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)
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Figure 18.13 Panophthalmitis secondary to the rupture of a corneal ulcer and subsequent infection with opportunistic bacteria in a blue angelfish. (© National Aquarium in Baltimore.)

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