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Although cytology requires practice, it is indispensable for the management of dermatology cases. This chapter provides a comprehensive description of the cytological features of common non-neoplastic skin diseases as a reference for general practitioners.

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4.2 Cocci and rod-shaped bacteria, both free and on the surface of anucleate keratinocytes. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.3 Numerous corneocytes along with a high number of peanut-shaped spp. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.5 Miliary dermatitis. There are numerous eosinophils (arrowed) and some macrophages (arrowhead) in this sample obtained from a cat with feline eosinophilic dermatitis. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.6 Canine leishmaniosis. The amastigotes can be recognized by the oval silhouette and the presence of an oval violet nucleus and a dark blue rod-shaped kinetoplast (arrowed). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.8 Bacterial folliculitis. Note that many of the karyolytic neutrophils are filled with staphylococci. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.9 An adult mite accompanied by neutrophilic inflammation. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.10 Pemphigus foliaceus. Note the numerous segmented neutrophils and rounded or polygonal acantholytic keratinocytes (arrowed). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.12 Pyogranulomatous inflammation. Note the epithelioid macrophages are surrounding large groups of corneocytes (endogenous foreign bodies).
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4.13 Pyogranulomatous inflammation in a dog with deep pyoderma. The free hair shaft fragments present following follicular rupture have been phagocytized by giant cells (arrowed) and intracytoplasmic corneocytes (arrowhead). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.14 Eosinophils (arrowed), activated macrophages and multinucleate giant cells (arrowhead) in a dog with eosinophilic furunculosis. The involvement of the hair follicles is confirmed by the presence of corneocytes (yellow arrow). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.15 Pyogranulomatous inflammation in a case of juvenile cellulitis. Note the presence of large groups of epitheloid macrophages (granulomas) evident at low magnification. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.16 Lympho-histiocytic inflammation in sterile pyogranuloma syndrome. Note that the numerous lymphoid cells (arrowed) and macrophages (arrowheads) mainly have bare nuclei. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.17 Macrophages with intracytoplasmic bacterial rods. As the cell walls of mycobacteria do not absorb routine stains, the bacteria appear clear (negative staining). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.18 Feline leprosy. At high magnification the mycobacteria, which appear red due to Ziehl–Neelsen staining, are clearly visible. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.19 Dermatophytic kerion. The spores (arthroconidia) are easily recognizable as round to oval microorganisms with a thin clear halo (arrowed). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.20 Cryptococcosis. Note the large clear halo (cell wall) and the typical narrow-based budding. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.22 infection. There are many slender and filamentous bacteria clearly evident at the periphery of the grains (arrowed). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.23 Phaeohyphomycosis characterized by pigmented septate and branched hyphae. Note the black fungal bodies phagocytized by epithelioid macrophages and giant cells. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.24 larvae and the associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.26 Histiocytosis. Note the large number of lymphocytes (arrowed) and histiocytes (arrowheads). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.27 Acellular mineral salts collected by fine-needle aspiration from a mineralized nodular digital lesion in a German Shepherd Dog. Note the violet colour and amorphous nature of the material. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.28 Calcinosis cutis. Note the numerous acellular, amorphous, achromatic and violet-stained mineral salts (arrowed) that have been attacked by multinucleated histiocytes (arrowheads). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.29 Eosinophilic plaque/granuloma. Note that numerous eosinophils (arrowed) and some macrophages (arrowheads) are visible. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.30 Eosinophilic plaque/granuloma. Giant cells are arranged around the amorphous basophilic material, which represents the ‘eosinophilic mush’ (necrotic eosinophilic foci). Numerous eosinophils are also visible (arrowed). (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.31 Panniculitis. Note the large round to oval lipid accumulations surrounded by pyogranulomatous inflammation. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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4.32 Cutaneous xanthomatosis. Note the numerous large macrophages and giant cells with cytoplasm filled with lipid vacuoles, which gives the cells a ‘foamy appearance’. (Diff-Quik® stain)
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