Identifying anaesthetic problems

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: Capnography is arguably the most reliable and least error prone anaesthetic monitoring modality available, and it can contribute significantly to patient safety. Capnography relies on the measurement of inspired and expired carbon dioxide and primarily gives information about respiratory adequacy. Distinctive capnograph trace patterns can also alert the user to breathing system faults, endotracheal tube problems and acute lung pathology. Additionally, capnography is recommended to prognosticate and judge the effectiveness of chest compressions during CPR. This session discusses an approach to using and interpreting the capnograph to diagnose problems under anaesthesia.

: This session presents an update on recent advances and controversies in managing hypotension during general anaesthesia. Hypotension is one of the most common adverse effects of general anaesthesia. Options for managing anaesthetic-induced hypotension include: 1. reducing the inhaled anaesthetic requirement: this can be achieved directly or indirectly (e.g. by providing analgesia). 2. fluid administration: the efficacy and duration of crystalloid fluid boluses are limited but a number of tools are available to identify patients that will benefit from a fluid bolus (e.g. pulse pressure variation) 3. vasoactive agents (e.g. dexmedetomidine, dopamine, ephedrine): there are pros and cons to the different agents available. These options and practical approaches are discussed.

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