image of Polycythaemia
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Polycythaemia is characterized by an increase in the packed cell volume, red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration. This chapter deals with erythropoiesis; relative polycythaemia; secondary polycythaemia; primary polycythaemia; consequences of polycythaemia; laboratory findings and diagnosis; treatment and prognosis.

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4.1 Erythematous foot pads of a cat with primary polycythaemia, prior to phlebotomy.
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4.2 Distended and tortuous retinal vessels resulting from hyperviscosity. (Image courtesy of Neil Gorman)
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4.4 Ultrasound examination of the left kidney, revealing disruption of the cortex and medulla. Biopsy later revealed this to be due to lymphoma. (Image courtesy of Samuel Jakovljevic)
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4.5 Approach to the polycythaemic patient. EPO, erythropoietin; PCV, packed cell volume.
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4.6 Application of a medical leech () to treat primary polycythaemia in a cat. (Image courtesy of Claudia Nett and Tony Glaus)
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