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Tumours of the nervous system

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Abstract

Tumours affecting the nervous system may involve the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system. This chapter looks at intracranial tumours; spinal cord tumours; peripheral nerve tumours.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781905319749.chap21

Figures

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21.2 Lateral radiograph of the skull of a dog presented after the owner noticed a swelling on its head. Note the proliferative bony lesion on the caudodorsal surface of the skull (arrowed). The final diagnosis was multilobular tumour of bone.
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21.3 Cytospin preparation of CSF from a dog with CNS lymphoma that was presented for seizures. Note the population of large mononuclear cells consistent with lymphoblasts. A mitotic figure is also present (arrowed).
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21.4 Meningioma in a cat. Transverse plane, post-contrast, T1-weighted MR image of the brain of a cat presenting for altered mentation. Note the large, extra-axial contrast-enhancing mass, with a broad dural attachment, characteristic of a meningioma (arrowed). The mass is causing compression of the ventricular system and deviation of the midline structures to the contralateral side.
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21.5 Glioma in a dog. Dorsal plane, post-contrast, T1-weighted MR image of the brain of a dog presented with seizures. Note the intra-axial, ring-enhancing mass adjacent to the lateral ventricle (arrowed), consistent with an aggressive glial cell tumour. The lesion is causing a mass effect, with deviation of the midline structures towards the contralateral side. The final diagnosis was anaplastic oligodendroglioma.
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21.6 Pituitary tumour in a dog. Transverse plane, post-contrast, T1-weighted MR image of a dog presented with altered mentation. Note the large spherical contrast-enhancing mass lesion that appears to be originating from the sellar region, consistent with a pituitary tumour (arrowed). The mass is compressing the third ventricle, and there is mild to moderate dilatation of the lateral ventricles, consistent with obstructive hydrocephalus (arrowhead).
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21.7 Skull tumour in a dog. Transverse plane, post-contrast, T1-weighted MR images of the brain of a dog presented for seizures. Note the large spherical contrast-enhancing, extra-axial mass (arrowed). The lesion is causing a substantial mass effect, with compression of the lateral ventricle and deviation of the midline towards the contralateral side. A contrast-enhancing lesion is present within the temporal musculature adjacent to the intracranial lesion (arrowhead), suggestive of a lesion traversing the skull. After craniectomy and mass removal, the brain has returned to its normal position, and no visible tumour remains. The final diagnosis was fibrosarcoma.
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21.9 Lateral thoracolumbar spinal radiograph of a dog presented for back pain and ambulatory paraparesis. The body of the second lumbar vertebra shows reduced density, consistent with bony lysis (arrowheads). There is an absence of the thin discrete radiodense line that normally delineates the dorsal aspect of the vertebral body and the floor of the spinal canal (arrowed). The final diagnosis was osteosarcoma.
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21.10 Myelographic patterns of compression. Lateral myelogram of the thoracolumbar spine of a dog presented with back pain. There is attenuation of the ventral and dorsal contrast columns (arrowheads), consistent with an extradural lesion. Lateral myelogram of the thoracolumbar spine of a dog presented with back pain and ataxia. There is a filling defect in the subarachnoid space, characterized by a large ‘golf-tee’ appearance (arrowed), consistent with an intradural–extramedullary lesion. Lateral myelogram of the thoracolumbar spine of a dog presented with paraparesis. Note the attenuation of both the ventral and dorsal contrast columns, with apparent expansion of the spinal cord and spinal canal (arrowheads). This is consistent with an intramedullary lesion.
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21.11 Transverse plane CT image of a lumbar vertebra in a dog presented for back pain and ataxia. Note the obvious lytic lesion of the vertebral body (arrowheads). The mass extends up into the spinal canal, and is compressing the spinal cord (arrowed). The final diagnosis was osteosarcoma.
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21.12 Vertebral tumour in a cat presented for spinal pain and paraparesis. Lateral radiograph of the thoracolumbar spine. A questionable lytic lesion is present in the body of the seventh lumbar (L7) vertebra (arrowed). Lateral plane, post-contrast, T1-weighted MR image. Note the obvious contrast-enhancing lesion involving L7 and extending dorsally into the spinal canal (arrowed). The final diagnosis was plasmacytoma.
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21.13 Intramedullary spinal cord tumour in a dog. Sagittal plane, post-contrast, T1-weighted MR image of the cervical spine of a dog presented for tetraparesis. Note the ring-enhancing, intramedullary lesion present over the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae. The dog also had a large pulmonary mass. Final diagnosis was poorly differentiated metastatic sarcoma.
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21.15 Brachial plexus tumour in a dog. Transverse plane, post-contrast, T1-weighted MR image of the cervical spine and brachial plexus of a dog presented with a chronic thoracic limb lameness. Note the contrast enhancement and marked thickening of the peripheral nerve on the right side (arrowheads). The spine is indicated by the white arrow. The final diagnosis was peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

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