Paraneoplastic syndromes

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Paraneoplastic syndromes result from indirect effects of tumours due to the production and release of biologically active substances such as hormones, growth factors and cytokines. This chapter reviews endocrine system; haematological/haemostatic complications; gastrointestinal system; cutaneous system, neuromuscular system; miscellaneous conditions.

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4.1 PTHrp concentrations in: healthy dogs (Control); dogs with lymphoma that were normocalcaemic (Lymphoma – N) and hypercalcaemic (Lymphoma – H); dogs with hypercalcaemia associated with an adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland (Anal sac carc.); hypercalcaemic dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a parathyroid adenoma (PHP); and dogs with hypercalcaemia and chronic renal failure (CRF). The dotted line represents the upper limit of the reference range. Normal dogs and hypercalcaemic dogs with a non-malignant disease rarely have elevated PTHrp concentrations. In contrast, dogs with hypercalcaemia caused by neoplasia often (but not invariably) have elevated plasma PTHrp concentrations. (Data from ).
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4.2 A diagnostic approach to hypercalcaemia. (Reproduced from )
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4.4 Pallor (shown here by the mucous membranes) is a common clinical finding in dogs with malignancy-associated immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia.
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4.5 Severe thrombocytopenia can result in clinical signs such as petechiae and/or ecchymoses.
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4.6 Diagnostic approach to the patient with a bleeding disorder. (Redrawn after )
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4.7 Summary of the pathways involved in DIC. (Redrawn after )
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4.8 Superficial necrolytic dermatitis: skin lesions of crusting and exudation affecting the muzzle and the mucocutaneous junctions of the eyelid.
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4.9 Radiographs of the lower limbs demonstrating periosteal new bone characteristic of hypertrophic osteopathy.
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