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Paraneoplastic syndromes

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Abstract

Paraneoplastic syndromes result from indirect effects of tumours due to the production and release of biologically active substances such as hormones, growth factors and cytokines. This chapter reviews endocrine system; haematological/haemostatic complications; gastrointestinal system; cutaneous system, neuromuscular system; miscellaneous conditions.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781905319749.chap4

Figures

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4.1 PTHrp concentrations in: healthy dogs (Control); dogs with lymphoma that were normocalcaemic (Lymphoma – N) and hypercalcaemic (Lymphoma – H); dogs with hypercalcaemia associated with an adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland (Anal sac carc.); hypercalcaemic dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism caused by a parathyroid adenoma (PHP); and dogs with hypercalcaemia and chronic renal failure (CRF). The dotted line represents the upper limit of the reference range. Normal dogs and hypercalcaemic dogs with a non-malignant disease rarely have elevated PTHrp concentrations. In contrast, dogs with hypercalcaemia caused by neoplasia often (but not invariably) have elevated plasma PTHrp concentrations. (Data from ).
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4.2 A diagnostic approach to hypercalcaemia. (Reproduced from )
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4.4 Pallor (shown here by the mucous membranes) is a common clinical finding in dogs with malignancy-associated immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia.
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4.5 Severe thrombocytopenia can result in clinical signs such as petechiae and/or ecchymoses.
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4.6 Diagnostic approach to the patient with a bleeding disorder. (Redrawn after )
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4.7 Summary of the pathways involved in DIC. (Redrawn after )
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4.8 Superficial necrolytic dermatitis: skin lesions of crusting and exudation affecting the muzzle and the mucocutaneous junctions of the eyelid.
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4.9 Radiographs of the lower limbs demonstrating periosteal new bone characteristic of hypertrophic osteopathy.

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