1887

An approach to disorders of pigmentation

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Abstract

In veterinary dermatology, disorders of pigmentation are disorders of melanogenic pigmentation; the role of other factors that contribute to pigmentation in hairless skin, such as haemoglobin or carotenes, is anecdotal. Melanin pigments are synthesized in specialized cells, the melanocytes, which are present in the hair follicle and epidermal basal layer. Melanocytes are dendritic cells that send connections to a determined number of neighbouring keratinocytes, to form a pigmentary functional unit. In the epidermis every melanocyte is associated with 36 keratinocytes, whilst the bulbar melanocyte is associated with only four cortical keratinocytes. These follicular melanocytes have specific properties. They are taller than epidermal melanocytes and synthesize larger melanosomes, which are distributed individually to the cortical cells. They are characterized by cyclic activity, synthesizing melanin during the anagen phase and entering apoptosis during the catagen phase, to be replaced at the next cycle by non-differentiated cells that reside in the permanent upper part of the outer root sheath. This chapter considers the following: Hypopigmentation disorders; and Hyperpigmentation disorders.

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Figures

Image of 10.1
10.1 Tanning observed in an alopecic white Poodle incompletely protected from the sun by a coat.
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10.3 Diagnostic approach to hypopigmentation disorders.
Image of Young adult Rottweiler with acquired vitiligo and poliosis.
Young adult Rottweiler with acquired vitiligo and poliosis. Young adult Rottweiler with acquired vitiligo and poliosis.
Image of Uveodermatological syndrome in a Siberian Husky, with partial depigmentation of the nose, muzzle and lips.
Uveodermatological syndrome in a Siberian Husky, with partial depigmentation of the nose, muzzle and lips. Uveodermatological syndrome in a Siberian Husky, with partial depigmentation of the nose, muzzle and lips.
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10.4 Waardenburg syndrome in a white Persian kitten, which presented with complete deafness and heterochromic irides.
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10.5 Persistence of nasal markings in a case of idiopathic acquired nasal hypopigmentation.
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10.7 Diagnostic approach to hyperpigmentation disorders.
Image of Three-year-old Domestic Shorthaired ginger cat with lentigo simplex.
Three-year-old Domestic Shorthaired ginger cat with lentigo simplex. Three-year-old Domestic Shorthaired ginger cat with lentigo simplex.
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10.8 Multifocal alopecic hyperpigmented lesions in a case of demodicosis.

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