1887

Invertebrates

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Abstract

This chapter provides the need-to-know information on invertebrates:

  • Biology
  • Husbandry
  • Handling and restraint
  • Diagnostic approach
  • Common conditions
  • Supportive care
  • Anaesthesia and analgesia
  • Common surgical procedures
  • Euthanasia.

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Figures

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21.1 Some commonly kept invertebrates. GAL snail. Mexican redknee tarantula. Imperial scorpion. (a,b Courtesy of DL Williams.)
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21.2 Chilean rose tarantulas mating. The male catches the female’s fangs with tibial hooks on the first pair of his legs and inseminates her with sperm stored in the distal pedipalps. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.3 Newly emerged scorpions ride on their mother’s back for several months before becoming independent and dispersing. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.4 Safe handling of a tarantula. This is an African species and lacks irritant hairs, so does not necessitate latex gloves. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.5 Tarantulas, such as this Mexican redknee, normally undergo ecdysis on their back, and should not be disturbed or handled during this process. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.6 Handling an imperial scorpion using padded forceps to grasp the tail. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.7 Ultrasonography is particularly useful for GAL snails. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.8 Endoscopic view of the pulmonary sac via the pneumostome in an East African GAL snail. The pulmonary sac can be examined for nematode or mite infections. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.9 Gregarine parasites in the gut of a desert locust (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.10 Many arthropods will react to infections or trauma by forming melanized inflammatory nodules. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.11 Blood smear from a tarantula. The green/blue respiratory pigment haemocyanin is contained in crystalline form in special haemocytes (cyanocytes) before being liberated into the haemolymph. Interpretation of invertebrate haematology is still in its infancy. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.12 Section of an insect tracheole viewed microscopically. Such preparations can be examined for evidence of mites, eggs or inflammatory melanization reactions. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.13 A bald patch is clearly visible on the dorsal opisthosoma of this Mexican redknee tarantula, presumed due to stress from viewers constantly banging on the glass of its enclosure. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.14 Panagrolaimid nematodes forming a white fluid-like mass under magnification on the mouthparts of a Goliath birdeater. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.15 Parasitic mites on a newly imported African dung beetle. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.16 This false death’s head cockroach suffered dystocia because the ovipositing substrate was too shallow. The large ootheca was removed manually to relieve the obstruction. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.17 The pathognomic ropey thread seen in American foulbrood in the European honey bee. European foulbrood leaves a dry scale in the cell. (Courtesy of DL Williams.)
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21.18 Fluids may be administered into (or haemolymph sampled from) the heart, which lies in the dorsal midline of the opisthosoma in tarantulas. Needle puncture sites should be sealed with cyanoacrylate adhesive to prevent haemolymph leakage. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.19 Doppler ultrasonography can be used to auscultate vascular flow and monitor anaesthesia in gastropods, as well as differentiating aestivating from dead individuals. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.20 A double anaesthetic chamber prevents the patient escaping up one of the tubes. This tarantula is demonstrating the loss of righting reflex. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)
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21.21 This shed tarantula cuticle contains a trapped limb that the spider had autotomized. (© Zoological Medicine Ltd.)

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