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Anaesthesia and analgesia

image of Anaesthesia and analgesia
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Abstract

This chapter is designed to give information on preparing the equipment and animal prior to anaesthesia, how to assist the veterinary surgeon during anaesthesia; how to care for the animal at the end of anaesthesia; and how to anaesthetize exotic pets. This includes sections on anaesthetic techniques and commonly used anaesthetic drugs; special techniques in anaesthesia and stages of anaesthesia.

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Figures

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12.1 The anaesthetic machine.
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12.5 Reading gas flow rates on rotameters.
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12.6 Boyle’s bottle vaporizer.
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12.7 Tec and Penlon type vaporizers.
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12.10 How to choose an anaesthetic breathing circuit.
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12.12 Gas flow within the Jackson Rees modified T-piece circuit. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas.
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12.13 Gas flow within the Bain circuit. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas.
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12.14 Gas flow within the Magill circuit. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas.
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12.15 Gas flow within the Lack circuit. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas.
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12.16 Gas flow within the Parallel Lack circuit. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas.
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12.17 Gas flow within the Humphrey ADE circuit without soda lime. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas.
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12.18 The Humphrey APL valve. (Photo courtesy of Dr D Humphrey)
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12.19 Humphrey ADE circuit connections.
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12.22 Gas flow inside the circle circuit. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas; soda lime.
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12.23 Gas flow inside the to-and-fro circuit. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas; soda lime.
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12.24 Gas flow inside the Humphrey ADE circle circuit with soda lime canister fitted. Fresh gas; dead-space gas; alveolar gas; soda lime.
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12.25 Circle circuit machines. With in-circuit vaporizer. With out-of-circuit vaporizer.
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12.26 Detail of the APL valve on a Humphrey ADE circuit.
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12.29 Sedatives.
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12.34 The volatile anaesthetic agents.
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12.42 Example of a form for recording details of anaesthesia (reproduced courtesy of The University of Liverpool).
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12.46 A BairHugger warm-air blanket in use. A heater unit blows warm air into a special blanket placed over the patient. It is thermostatically controlled and therefore unable to overheat the patient. (Photograph courtesy of Northwest Surgeons, Cheshire)
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12.48 A well designed recovery suite. Note the large windows that allow staff to watch recovering patients from the adjacent preparation room. (Photograph courtesy of Northwest Surgeons, Cheshire)
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12.50 A veterinary nurse measuring the blood pressure of an anaesthetized dog. (Photograph courtesy of Northwest Surgeons, Cheshire)
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12.51 Anaesthetic monitoring aids. A capnograph sits on top of a multi-function device that includes an ECG machine, a pulse oximeter, an indirect blood pressure monitor and a thermometer; a direct blood pressure transducer can also be attached. (Photograph courtesy of Northwest Surgeons, Cheshire)
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12.56 Coaxial facemask specifically designed for small mammals. There is a loose seal around the animal’s head, but any anaesthetic gas that escapes is sucked into the scavenging system, thus avoiding theatre pollution.
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12.57 Anaesthetic induction chamber layouts. Induction chamber with the exhaust at the bottom. If the exhaust is low down, the heavy volatile anaesthetic vapour sinks to the bottom and an area of anaesthetic-free gas is left at the top of the chamber. An animal can then hold its head in this ‘clean’ air and avoid breathing the anaesthetic vapour. Induction chamber with the exhaust at the top. Placing the exhaust higher up on the chamber fills the entire chamber with volatile anaesthetic vapour and the animal has no choice but to breathe the gas mixture.
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12.60 Air flow through the avian respiratory system. Fresh gas; exhaled gas.
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12.61 Using caudal air sac insufflation to ventilate birds during anaesthesia. When air sac insufflation is used to maintain anaesthesia in birds, oxygen and volatile anaesthetic agent is introduced into the caudal air sac via a small tube inserted percutaneously. The fresh gas flows out of the air sacs, through the parabronchi and out of the bird’s trachea. When a bird is being anaesthetized in this way, it does not breathe: the flow of gas through the parabronchi delivers oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. Fresh gas; exhaled gas.

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