1887

Raptors: gastrointestinal tract disease

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Abstract

An accurate history is important to arrive at a diagnosis in a bird with possible gastrointestinal disease. Questions related to recent weight changes and training methods will help to establish the kind of stresses being placed on the bird. This chapter evaluates clinical history, examination and diagnosis; viral enteritis; bacterial enteritis and dysbiosis; enterotoxaemia; candidiasis; pancreatic disease; crop fistulae and abscesses; gastrointestinal foreign bodies; peritonitis; and cloacal disease.

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Figures

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23.3 Stomatitis. Bacterial, affecting the laryngeal mound in a falcon. can cause highly destructive lesions. This infection had affected the Eustachian tube, causing middle ear disease. . (a,c, courtesy of Tom Bailey)
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23.4 Gout crystals are visible in the oropharynx of this falcon. Despite aggressive fluid therapy, the falcon died within 24 hours.
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23.6 Gram stain of faeces showing sporulating spp. (Courtesy of Renata Padrtova, Nad Al Shiba Veterinary Hospital)
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23.7 cells and pseudohyphae from the crop of a falcon (Gram stain). (Courtesy of Renata Padrtova, Nad Al Shiba Veterinary Hospital)
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23.8 Crop fistula secondary to spp.in a Peregrine Falcon. (Courtesy of Tom Bailey)
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23.9 Crop abscess and (inset) after removal. (Courtesy of Mirjam Hampel, Nad Al Shiba Veterinary Hospital)
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23.10 Sand ingestion in a falcon. This a common problem in falcons in the Middle East. Crop foreign body: this bird had ingested stones. (Courtesy of Tom Bailey)
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23.11 Gaseous dilatation of the intestine in this case was associated with a spp. enteritis. (Courtesy of Tom Bailey)
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23.12 Peritonitis. In this case trichomoniasis had led to a secondary peritonitis.
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23.13 Cloacal urolith, preventing normal defecation in this bird.

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