Examination, triage and hospitalization

image of Examination, triage and hospitalization
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Signs that may not be an emergency when described in a dog or cat could well be so in an avian patient. Simple written guidelines are the best means of ensuring that urgent cases are correctly prioritized, especially in large practices with several reception staff. This chapter assesses accepting an avian case; history and assessment of husbandry; clinical examination; physical examination; triage and emergency medicine; fluid therapy; stabilization and further examination; and hospitalization.

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7.2 Egg-bound Zebra Finch. Note closed eyes and fluffed feathers and the fact that the bird is on the floor of the cage. This bird is severely ill and such a presentation should be considered an emergency. (© John Chitty)
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7.3 A falcon’s normal fresh casting, consisting of fur and feathers.
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7.4 Examples of history forms for raptors, pigeons and passerine birds.
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7.5 Know the normal! This cere hypertrophy can be normal in a male pigeon. While it will restrict vision and affect flying ability, it is deemed desirable in some show breeds. It also enables easy visual sexing. (Courtesy of Aidan Raftery)
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7.6 Normal pigeon eye. (Courtesy of Alistair Lawrie)
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7.7 Haemorrhage in the ear of a Tawny Owl due to cranial trauma.
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7.9 Numerous fret marks (arrowed) due to poor nutritional status.
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7.10 Normal droppings. Normal pigeon droppings (right) consist of a semi-solid greenish faeces part and a white urate part attached; abnormal loose faeces (left) can be caused by polyuria or diarrhoea, but differentiation between the two conditions is difficult. Normal hawk mutes: note the shape; this is known as ‘slicing’ and the distance and shape of the slice can be taken as a measure of good health. Normal softbill dropping, much softer and looser than a raptor mute. Normal raptor mutes: note that the presence of some fluid and colour is not always abnormal. (a, courtesy of M. Pees; b, © John Chitty; c, courtesy of Geoff Masson)
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7.11 Abnormal droppings. Mild enteritis in a raptor. Malabsorption after treatment for infection. Reddish orange mute seen 10 minutes after the bird had received a multi-vitamin injection. (a, © Michael Lierz; b, courtesy of Tom Bailey; c, courtesy of Chris Lloyd)
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7.12 Green droppings. Biliverdinuria from a falcon with lymphoma; this may be seen in many cases with severe liver damage. Anorexia or an empty gut will produce a dark green faecal portion and some colour in the urine (a, © John Chitty; b, © Michael Lierz)
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7.13 Polyuria. (© Michael Lierz)
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7.14 Melaena in a falcon, resulting from gastric ulceration. Contrast with fresh red blood in the urine, where the blood is evenly distributed through the urinary portion, generally indicating renal blood loss. The presence of blood clots in the urine (much more common) indicates cloacal or uterine damage or may be seen in coagulopathies (e.g. rodenticide toxicity, see (d)). Fibrinous haemorrhagic faeces, indicating coccidiosis in a falcon. Haemorrhagic enteritis: fresh blood in the faecal sample often indicates clostridial enterotoxaemia. Haematuria in a raptor. The presence of clots (in contrast to the lack of clots in (c)) shows that the blood comes from ‘below’ the kidneys, most probably from the cloaca or uterus. This is typically seen in coumarol toxicity. (a, © John Chitty; b,d, © Michael Lierz; c, courtesy of Tom Bailey)
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7.15 Abnormal passerine droppings. Diarrhoea in a Greenfinch. Polyuria in a Zebra Finch; compare the normal and abnormal droppings on the paper. (© John Chitty)
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7.16 Pigeon paramyxovirus infection indicated by a pool of urine surrounding a core of dark green/black material. (Courtesy of Tom Pennycott)
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7.21 A Common Kestrel kept in a darkened oxygen enclosure.
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