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Laboratory techniques

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Abstract

This chapter looks at blood sampling, skin sampling, urine collection, faecal appearance, bacteriology, and the handling of pathological samples. Includes self-assessment questions.

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Figures

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10.2 The right jugular vein of an anaesthetized ferret. (© John Chitty)
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10.3 Taking blood from the cranial vena cava of a guinea pig. The sedated animal is in dorsal recumbency with its head over the edge of a table. The needle enters the left thoracic inlet, angled toward the right hindleg. (© John Chitty)
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10.4 The lateral saphenous vein of a rabbit (arrowed). (© John Chitty)
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10.5 The marginal ear vein of a rabbit with an intravenous catheter in place (© John Chitty)
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10.7 The right jugular vein of a peregrine falcon (anaesthetized). (Reproduced from the ; © John Chitty)
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10.8 The ulnar vein of a tawny owl. (Reproduced from the ; © John Chitty)
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10.9 The caudal tibial vein of a pigeon. (Reproduced from the ; © John Chitty)
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10.10 Venepuncture of the ventral tail vein in a bearded dragon. (© John Chitty)
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10.11 Locating the heart in a large anaesthetized boa constrictor using an 8 MHz Doppler ultrasound probe. (© John Chitty)
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10.12 Venepuncture of the dorsal branch of the right jugular vein of a tortoise. The lines show the two branches of the jugular vein. (© John Chitty)
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10.13 Venepuncture using the subcarapacial vein. The needle is angled so that it enters the body where the skin joins the shell, dorsal to the head. It then passes dorsally to access the vein just ventral to the vertebrae. (© John Chitty)
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10.14 Venepuncture of the dorsal tail vein of a tortoise. (© John Chitty)
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10.15 The large buffy coat in this sample suggests that the patient (a bearded dragon) has leukaemia. Lymphoproliferative disease is common in this species. (© John Chitty)
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10.17 An impression smear from an exudative skin lesion in a rabbit. The presence of bacteria and heterophils confirms pyoderma. (Diff-Quik stain; original magnification x 1000) (© John Chitty)
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10.18 A rat louse () (female). (© John Chitty)
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10.19 A fur mite from a guinea pig. (© John Chitty)
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10.20 A sarcoptid mite from a rat. (© John Chitty)
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10.21 Collection of feather pulp from a blood feather. (© John Chitty)
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10.22 Acetate strip applied to the skin of a cockatiel.
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10.24 A scaling lesion on the forelimb of a green iguana. Removal of the superficial scab, followed by an impression smear of the underlying lesion, confirmed a fungal infection. (© John Chitty)
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10.25 Normal red pigmented urine from a rabbit. (© John Chitty)
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10.26 Unfixed urine 24 hours old (original magnification x500). While bacteria are present, cells are too autolysed to be identified. Fixed urine. Same urine sample fixed with buffered formalin 2 drops/ml, 24 hours old (original magnification x500). Note: the lobulated nuclei of neutrophils are clearly preserved, allowing the cells to be identified. (© Nick Carmichael)
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10.27 Haematuria in a sun conure, caused by lead toxicosis. Frank, haemorrhage-free blood is mixed with normal urine. Haematuria should not be confused with melaena, as seen in this hawk dropping. Here, the faecal portion contains dark digested blood from a proventricular ulcer and the blood staining emanates from this. (© John Chitty)
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10.28 Droppings from a parrot with enteritis. Contrast with , a normal mute from a falcon. Note the effect caused by normal (healthy) ejection of the mute. This is referred to as ‘slicing’. (© John Chitty)
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10.29 Normal budgerigar droppings on sandpaper. While these are clearly normal, it is hard to distinguish abnormalities unless droppings are collected on paper. (© John Chitty)
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10.30 Some abnormal bird droppings. From an African grey parrot with polyuria. Biliverdinuria in a falcon. Undigested seed in droppings is a sign of upper gastrointestinal disturbance. This must be distinguished from loose droppings landing on discarded seed. (© John Chitty)
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10.31 Gram staining. proliferation; large Gram-positive (dark blue) rods noted on a background containing smaller bacteria and debris in a faecal smear from a penguin (original magnification x1000). from a wasting budgerigar (original magnification x400). (© John Chitty) showing typical narrow-based budding and morphology from the gastrointestinal tract of a vulture (original magnification x1000). (© Nick Carmichael)
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10.32 A lungworm larva () from a hedgehog. (© John Chitty)
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10.33 A nematode ( spp.) egg in a faecal sample from a rabbit (x400 original magnification). A yeast cell can be seen to the left (arrowed). (© John Chitty)
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10.34 Trichomonads from a budgerigar crop wash. These parasites may also be found in faecal samples. (© John Chitty)
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10.35 Bird and reptile endoparasite eggs (all at x400 original magnification). Avian . Avian cestode. Oxyurids ( spp) (pinworm) from a bearded dragon. Tortoise ascarid ( sp.) (© John Chitty)
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10.36 Techniques for preparing smears from blood and fluid samples.

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