Diagnostic imaging

image of Diagnostic imaging
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This chapter provides information on radiographic positioning and obtaining diagnostic radiographs of exotic patients. It also covers the use of ultrasonography and endoscopy. Includes self-assessment questions.

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8.1 Positioning of a chinchilla for a dorsoventral view of the skull.
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8.2 From upper left clockwise: Right lateral oblique radiograph of a chinchilla which highlights the upper right and lower left molar teeth. A dorsoventral radiograph of a chinchilla. Rostrocaudal view of a chinchilla skull, highlighting the orbits and sinuses. Lateral view of a chinchilla skull showing normal dentition.
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8.3 Positioning of a chinchilla for a left lateral oblique view of the skull. The patient’s nose is slightly raised so that the median axis is parallel to the cassette.
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8.4 Dorsoventral radiograph of a tenrec. The identichip can be seen implanted to one side of the neck.
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8.5 Lateral radiograph of a tenrec, with good contrast allowing clear distinction between soft tissue and bony structures. Ideally the fore- and hindlegs should be pulled forwards and backwards, respectively, to stop them obscuring the chest and abdomen.
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8.6 In this lateral radiograph of a bird the coracoid bones are superimposed and a ventrodorsal view would be needed to identify any pathology.
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8.7 A kestrel positioned for a ventrodorsal view. (Courtesy of C. Rice) Ventrodorsal radiograph of a bird with a fractured ulna (arrowed).
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8.8 A budgerigar positioned for a lateral view. Lateral radiograph of the skull of a macaw showing normal anatomy.
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8.9 Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs of a bird, showing barium contrast medium in the crop and gastrointestinal tract. Dorsoventral radiograph of a bird skull, showing contrast medium in the nasal sinus.
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8.10 A fractured ulna in a bird.
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8.11 Radiograph demonstrating ascites in a budgerigar.
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8.12 Lateral radiograph showing the presence of an egg in the reproductive tract of an egg-bound bird.
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8.13 Demonstration of the vasovagal technique on a water dragon.
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8.14 A bearded dragon positioned for a dorsoventral view.
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8.15 A bearded dragon positioned for a lateral view using a horizontal X-ray beam.
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8.16 A bearded dragon positioned for a lateral view using a vertical X-ray beam.
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8.17 Dorsoventral and lateral radiographs of a lizard, showing barium in the gastrointestinal tract.
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8.18 A conscious royal python positioned in a clear container for the dorsoventral view.
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8.19 Dorsoventral radiographs of coiled snakes. The snake is badly positioned, with its body overlying itself and obscuring the image. Good positioning with as little superimposition as possible allows the anatomy to be seen more clearly. (Courtesy of C. Rice)
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8.20 An anaesthetized cornsnake positioned for a dorsoventral view. Radiopaque marker tape can be used to identify various positions along the snake.
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8.21 Lateral radiographs of a whole snake obtained by imaging sections in turn.
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8.22 Dorsoventral view of a conscious snake with barium in the gastrointestinal tract.
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8.23 A spur-thighed tortoise positioned for a dorsoventral view.
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8.24 A spur-thighed tortoise positioned for a lateral view using a horizontal X-ray beam. Lateral radiograph of a tortoise, showing normal lung fields but with some old pyramid changes to the spine and shell.
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8.25 A spur-thighed tortoise positioned for a rostrocaudal view using a horizontal X-ray beam. Rostrocaudal radiograph of a tortoise with mild inflammatory changes to the right lung.
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8.26 Lateral radiograph of a tortoise, showing barium in the gastrointestinal tract.
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8.27 Dorsoventral radiograph showing the presence of retained eggs in a tortoise. The two white areas near the tail are old methyl methacrylate supports attached to the plastron. (Courtesy of C. Rice)
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8.28 Ultrasound image of a terrapin with a fluid-filled gastrointestinal tract.
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8.29 Ultrasonography of the eye of a parrot. Ultrasound image of a normal bird’s eye. Ultrasound image of a bird’s eye with a soft tissue mass in the posterior chamber.
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8.30 Positioning the ultrasound probe in chelonians. The terrapin is held in sternal recumbency and imaged via the prefemoral fossa, with the hindlimb pulled caudally. The probe is placed between the shoulder and the neck of the terrapin and directed caudally (the cervicobrachial approach).
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8.31 A rigid endoscope with two sheaths . The sheaths protect the delicate endoscope from damage and they also have portals, which allow water, air or operating instruments to be inserted alongside the endoscope. The lower sheath (c) has ingress ports for gas insufflation.
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8.32 Endoscopy being carried out on a bearded dragon.
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8.33 Endoscopic images from a rabbit. Upper and lower dental arcades. Spurs on molar teeth. Tongue ulceration.
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8.34 Endoscopic images of birds. Normal liver. Normal lung. Active ovary. Testicle, adrenal gland and kidney. Normal syrinx. Occluded syrinx. Air sacculitis. Lung haemorrhage. in an air sac. Aspergillus granuloma.
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8.35 Endoscopic images of reptiles. The lung of a monitor lizard. The cloaca of a snake.
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8.36 Lateral radiograph of a hedgehog. Lateral radiograph of a young wild rabbit. (Courtesy of the RSPCA)
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8.37 Diagnostic imaging of wild animals is useful for the investigation of foreign bodies. A swan with a hook embedded in its mouth. A polecat with an air gun pellet in its skull. (Courtesy of the RSPCA)


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