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Inappropriate urination, dysuria and pollakiuria

image of Inappropriate urination, dysuria and pollakiuria
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Abstract

Inappropriate urination, dysuria (difficult or painful urination) and pollakiuria (abnormally frequent urination) are distressing problems for owners. This chapter deals with clinical approach, inappropriate urination, differential diagnoses for dysuria and pollakiuria, empirical treatment, when to refer and if finances are limited. : Radiographic contrast studies of the lower urinary tract.

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Figures

Image of 5.21.2
5.21.2 Lateral abdominal radiograph illustrating bilateral renomegaly in a cat with renal lymphoma.
Image of 5.21.3
5.21.3 Basic urinalysis can be performed on a free-catch sample from non-absorbable cat litter.
Image of 5.21.4
5.21.4 Clinical approach to inappropriate urination, dysuria and pollakiuria.
Image of Lateral abdominal radiograph of a positive contrast bladder study, showing contrast medium leaking through the bladder wall indicating bladder rupture. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore)
Lateral abdominal radiograph of a positive contrast bladder study, showing contrast medium leaking through the bladder wall indicating bladder rupture. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore) Lateral abdominal radiograph of a positive contrast bladder study, showing contrast medium leaking through the bladder wall indicating bladder rupture. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore)
Image of Lateral abdominal radiograph of a double-contrast bladder study, showing a thickened apical ventral bladder wall. This cat was diagnosed with feline idiopathic cystitis. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore)
Lateral abdominal radiograph of a double-contrast bladder study, showing a thickened apical ventral bladder wall. This cat was diagnosed with feline idiopathic cystitis. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore) Lateral abdominal radiograph of a double-contrast bladder study, showing a thickened apical ventral bladder wall. This cat was diagnosed with feline idiopathic cystitis. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore)
Image of Positive retrograde urethrogram. There is a narrowing at the level of the pelvic obturator foramen (arrowed). This could be normal (urethral contraction) or abnormal. The contrast study needs to be repeated and a repeat radiograph taken to decide whether this is a consistent (and therefore abnormal) finding. (Courtesy of North Downs Specialist Referrals)
Positive retrograde urethrogram. There is a narrowing at the level of the pelvic obturator foramen (arrowed). This could be normal (urethral contraction) or abnormal. The contrast study needs to be repeated and a repeat radiograph taken to decide whether this is a consistent (and therefore abnormal) finding. (Courtesy of North Downs Specialist Referrals) Positive retrograde urethrogram. There is a narrowing at the level of the pelvic obturator foramen (arrowed). This could be normal (urethral contraction) or abnormal. The contrast study needs to be repeated and a repeat radiograph taken to decide whether this is a consistent (and therefore abnormal) finding. (Courtesy of North Downs Specialist Referrals)
Image of This 3-year-old neutered male DSH cat was involved in a road traffic accident. The retrograde urethrogram confirmed a ruptured urethra causing a uroabdomen, as shown by the leakage of contrast agent within the caudal abdomen and pelvic cavity. A prepubic urethrostomy was performed as a salvage procedure. (Courtesy of North Downs Specialist Referrals)
This 3-year-old neutered male DSH cat was involved in a road traffic accident. The retrograde urethrogram confirmed a ruptured urethra causing a uroabdomen, as shown by the leakage of contrast agent within the caudal abdomen and pelvic cavity. A prepubic urethrostomy was performed as a salvage procedure. (Courtesy of North Downs Specialist Referrals) This 3-year-old neutered male DSH cat was involved in a road traffic accident. The retrograde urethrogram confirmed a ruptured urethra causing a uroabdomen, as shown by the leakage of contrast agent within the caudal abdomen and pelvic cavity. A prepubic urethrostomy was performed as a salvage procedure. (Courtesy of North Downs Specialist Referrals)

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