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Ultrasonography

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Abstract

The rabbit ultrasonographer is faced with a number of difficulties. There are few reference data regarding the normal and abnormal ultrasonographic anatomy of this species and also relatively few individuals who are familiar with both ultrasonography and the veterinary aspects of the rabbit patient. This chapter looks at equipment, indications for ultrasonography, abdominal and thoracic ultrasonography, ultrasonography of the eye and conditions for which ultrasound examination can be diagnostic. : Ultrasound examination of the abdomen; Echocardiography.

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Figures

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8.3 Ultrasonographic appearance of the normal liver of a rabbit, obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.4 Ultrasonographic appearance of the normal spleen of a rabbit, obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.5 Ultrasonographic appearance of the normal kidney of a rabbit, obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.6 Ultrasonographic appearance of the normal kidney and ovary of a rabbit, obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.7 Parasternal view showing the hypoechoic lumen of the ascending aorta.
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8.8 Parasternal short axis view showing right (RV) and left (LV) ventricles.
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8.9 The four main positions for M-mode measurements. aml = anterior mitral leaflet; Ao = aorta; av = aortic valve; ECG = electrocardiogram; IS = interventricular septum; LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricle; mv = mitral valve; per = pericardium; PW = posterior wall; RV = right ventricle; TW = thoracic wall. (Reproduced with permission from )
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8.10 Diagram summarizing M-mode measurements. EF slope = early diastolic posterior motion of mitral valve; EP = ejection period; LAD; left atrial interval dimension; LVDD = left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVSD = left ventricular end-systolic dimension; PEP = pre-ejection period; RVDD = right ventricular end-diastolic dimension; SSPAW = systolic slope of the posterior aortic wall; SSS = systolic slope of the septum. (Reproduced with permission from )
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8.11 Position of probe used to obtain an image of the globe. Normal ultrasonographic appearance of the rabbit globe.
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8.13 Ultrasonographic appearance of a retrobulbar abscess in a rabbit, obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.14 Ultrasonographic appearance of calcification of the aortic arch of a rabbit with ‘early’ arteriosclerosis, obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.15 Ultrasonographic appearance of the liver of a rabbit with liver lobe torsion. The right side of the liver was enlarged and heterogeneous. Image obtained using a 10 MHz sector probe.
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8.16 Ultrasonographic appearance of a hyperechoic area of the kidney suggestive of nephrocalcinosis in a rabbit, obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.17 Ultrasonographic appearance of the kidney of a rabbit showing a marked hyperechoic cortex consistent with nephrocalcinosis and (early) renal failure. The nephrocalcinosis was not yet visible on plain radiography. This rabbit died 8 months later and renal failure was confirmed on post-mortem examination. Image obtained using a 10 MHz curvilinear probe.
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8.18 Ultrasonographic appearance of the bladder and uterine adenocarcinoma, obtained using a 7.5 MHz sector probe.
Image of Alternative positions of probe used to obtain an image of the liver.
Alternative positions of probe used to obtain an image of the liver. Alternative positions of probe used to obtain an image of the liver.
Image of Probe positioning showing the relative position of the spleen in the cranial abdomen.
Probe positioning showing the relative position of the spleen in the cranial abdomen. Probe positioning showing the relative position of the spleen in the cranial abdomen.
Image of Position of probe used to obtain an image of the right and left kidneys. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
Position of probe used to obtain an image of the right and left kidneys. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission. Position of probe used to obtain an image of the right and left kidneys. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
Image of Alternative positions of probe used to obtain an image of the left kidney.
Alternative positions of probe used to obtain an image of the left kidney. Alternative positions of probe used to obtain an image of the left kidney.
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Image of Untitled

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