Ophthalmic manifestations of systemic disease

image of Ophthalmic manifestations of systemic disease
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An ophthalmic examination can provide useful information about the nature and extent of systemic diseases. This chapter provides an overview of those systemic diseases that commonly produce ophthalmic manifestations: infectious diseases; non-infectious diseases.

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20.1 Bilateral corneal oedema in a 12-week-old puppy that developed 3 weeks after live CAV-2 vaccination. The condition resolved following a 2-week course of topical corticosteroids.
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20.2 Dendritic corneal ulceration associated with FHV-1 infection.
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20.3 Anterior uveitis in a cat with FIP. Clinical signs include mucoid ocular discharge, miosis, iris thickening, diffuse corneal oedema and ‘mutton fat’ endothelial precipitates (also known as keratic precipitates). (Courtesy of G McLellan)
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20.4 Active chorioretinitis in a cat with FIP. The condition was bilateral. The retinal venules are mildly thickened and tortuous, and multiple hyporeflective inflammatory foci are evident within the retina.
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20.5 Fundus of a cat with FIP. The condition was bilateral. The retinal venules are markedly thickened and tortuous with segmentation or ‘box-carring’ due to serum hyperviscosity (thin arrows). The inferior retinal blood vessels appear out of focus owing to retinal detachment (thick arrows). A large white perivascular effusion is visible overlying a retinal venule (arrowhead). Areas of subretinal effusion are visible adjacent to the optic nerve head (*).
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20.6 Lymphoma infiltration of the iris and anterior chamber in an FeLV-positive cat. Note the marked pupil asymmetry.
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20.7 Presumed lymphoma infiltration of the fundus in a cat diagnosed with ocular and CNS lymphoma.
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20.8 infection in a cat, which involves the cornea and anterior chamber of both eyes.
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20.9 Cryptococcosis in a cat. Bilateral fundus changes, consisting of multiple subretinal pyogranulomatous infiltrates and partial retinal detachment, are present.
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20.10 Extensive subconjunctival haemorrhage in a Staffordshire Bull Terrier with infestation.
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20.11 larva (arrowed) within the anterior chamber of a Cocker Spaniel presenting with severe anterior uveitis. A goniolens has been placed on the cornea to allow visualization of the iridocorneal drainage angle, from which the parasite is seen emerging. The iris (*) and pupil (arrowhead) are shown for orientation.
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20.12 FCRD presumed to be due to taurine deficiency. (Courtesy of S Crispin)
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20.13 Papilloedema, neovascularization of the optic nerve head and blood vessel tortuosity in a cat affected with thiamine deficiency. (Courtesy of S Crispin)
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20.14 Punctate hypocalcaemic cataract in a hypoparathyroid dog.
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20.15 Hyperviscosity syndrome in a dog with polycythaemia. Note the pronounced thickening, tortuosity and darkening of the retinal blood vessels. (Courtesy of S Crispin)
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20.16 Hyperlipidaemia in association with cataract and lens-induced uveitis in a mixed-breed dog. In the left eye, lipid within the aqueous humour has settled in the inferior anterior chamber. (Courtesy of G McLellan)
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20.17 Hypertensive chorioretinopathy in a cat. Note the multiple bullous retinal detachments and mild tortuosity of the superficial arterioles.
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20.18 Left eye and right eye of a dog showing lymphoma infiltrating the iris and anterior chamber with secondary uveitis and hyphaema.
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20.19 UVD in a 2-year-old Akita. Depigmentation and erosive lesions of the planum nasale and eyelid margins are evident, along with bilateral retinal detachment.
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