Ophthalmic analgesia and anaesthesia

image of Ophthalmic analgesia and anaesthesia
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Pain is a component of many ophthalmic diseases and the provision of adequate analgesia is an ethical obligation for all veterinary clinicians. This chapter considers the anaesthetic approach to the ophthalmic patient and encompasses the following aspects: analgesia; relevant aspects of ocular physiology; pre-anaesthetic assessment; formulation of an anaesthetic plan; intraoperative monitoring; postoperative care; special techniques, including provision of neuromuscular blockade.

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5.3 Retrobulbar needle.
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5.8 Positioning for corneal surgery. Note the ventral neck flexion and the monitoring devices attached.
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5.9 Nerve stimulator in position on the peroneal nerve.
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