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Reproductive management

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Abstract

This chapter considers the management of canine reproduction: how to prevent unwanted pregnancies; pre-breeding advice; and normal whelping. It also discusses common neonatal problems. Topics considered are: Prevention of breeding in the bitch, prevention of breeding in the male dog, breeding advice, mating, pregnancy diagnosis, normal pregnancy, parturition, neonatal care and common paediatric emergencies. : Ovariohysterectomy hints and tips; Castration (orchidectomy) hints and tips; Caesarean section hints and tips.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443200.chap5

Figures

Image of 5.2
5.2 Histology of seminiferous tubules before and after deslorelin implant, showing complete absence of sperm while the implant is active.
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5.3 Different stages of the oestrous cycle in relation to changes in plasma hormone concentrations and ovulation. (Reproduced from )
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5.4 Timing of ovulation and fertilization. LH = luteinizing hormone.
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5.5 Collection tubes with different fractions of the ejaculate. The prostatic fluid is clear whereas the sperm-rich fraction is a cloudy white.
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5.6 Abnormal spermatozoa, showing one sperm with three tails and another with a swollen midpiece. Both heads also have several vacuoles on the surface.
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5.7 Vaginal cytology. Large rounded cells with small nuclei are typical of the oestrogen phase. Keratinized squamous cells are typical of the fertile phase. (Diff-Quik; original magnification X400)
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5.8 ELISA wells from an in-house testing kit (Premate), showing different concentrations of progesterone.
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5.9 Endoscopic appearance of the vaginal mucosa: early pro-oestrus; late pro-oestrus; oestrus; metoestrus; anoestrus.
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5.10 A 4-week pregnancy in a Jack Russell Terrier. The fetus (F) is clearly visible, surrounded by fetal fluids and fetal membranes (FM), within the uterus. (Reproduced from )
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5.11 Endocrinological changes during pregnancy and lactation in the bitch. (Reproduced from )
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5.12 A newborn puppy with a severe cleft palate. Treatment of such a case would be very difficult, and euthanasia should be advised.
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Image of Tension is applied to the skin with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, whilst the scalpel incision is made from cranial to caudal with the right hand.
Tension is applied to the skin with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, whilst the scalpel incision is made from cranial to caudal with the right hand. Tension is applied to the skin with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, whilst the scalpel incision is made from cranial to caudal with the right hand.
Image of The incision is continued caudally. The linea alba is now visible through the subcutaneous fat. Small amounts of cutaneous haemorrhage can be ignored.
The incision is continued caudally. The linea alba is now visible through the subcutaneous fat. Small amounts of cutaneous haemorrhage can be ignored. The incision is continued caudally. The linea alba is now visible through the subcutaneous fat. Small amounts of cutaneous haemorrhage can be ignored.
Image of Tension is applied to the fat with the left hand as it is incised, to expose the linea alba. NB The connective tissue is not cleared from the underlying muscle.
Tension is applied to the fat with the left hand as it is incised, to expose the linea alba. NB The connective tissue is not cleared from the underlying muscle. Tension is applied to the fat with the left hand as it is incised, to expose the linea alba. NB The connective tissue is not cleared from the underlying muscle.
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of Untitled
Image of The broad ligament is exposed and a window created using a finger.
The broad ligament is exposed and a window created using a finger. The broad ligament is exposed and a window created using a finger.
Image of The ovarian pedicle is clamped.
The ovarian pedicle is clamped. The ovarian pedicle is clamped.
Image of The third pair of clamps has been removed and the area of crushed tissue is ligated.
The third pair of clamps has been removed and the area of crushed tissue is ligated. The third pair of clamps has been removed and the area of crushed tissue is ligated.
Image of The clamps are twisted to shear through the pedicle.
The clamps are twisted to shear through the pedicle. The clamps are twisted to shear through the pedicle.
Image of The ligated pedicle is checked for haemorrhage before it is released into the abdomen.
The ligated pedicle is checked for haemorrhage before it is released into the abdomen. The ligated pedicle is checked for haemorrhage before it is released into the abdomen.
Image of The ovary has been elevated and retracted caudally to allow the ovarian ligament to be broken down using the digits of the left hand.
The ovary has been elevated and retracted caudally to allow the ovarian ligament to be broken down using the digits of the left hand. The ovary has been elevated and retracted caudally to allow the ovarian ligament to be broken down using the digits of the left hand.
Image of The cervix is ligated, clamped, sectioned and checked for haemorrhage before being released into the abdomen.
The cervix is ligated, clamped, sectioned and checked for haemorrhage before being released into the abdomen. The cervix is ligated, clamped, sectioned and checked for haemorrhage before being released into the abdomen.
Image of The uterus and ovaries after removal. Both ovaries can be seen to have been removed completely.
The uterus and ovaries after removal. Both ovaries can be seen to have been removed completely. The uterus and ovaries after removal. Both ovaries can be seen to have been removed completely.
Image of The linea alba is closed using a continuous suture pattern.
The linea alba is closed using a continuous suture pattern. The linea alba is closed using a continuous suture pattern.
Image of The skin is closed, here using a subcuticular continuous pattern.
The skin is closed, here using a subcuticular continuous pattern. The skin is closed, here using a subcuticular continuous pattern.
Image of This wound was closed with cruciate mattress sutures. Whilst this is a popular pattern amongst inexperienced surgeons, there is a tendency to tie the sutures too tightly, with the result that the wound tends to invert. This causes discomfort and leads to self-mutilation. Following removal of these sutures it can be seen that the wound is healing poorly where the sutures have been placed.
This wound was closed with cruciate mattress sutures. Whilst this is a popular pattern amongst inexperienced surgeons, there is a tendency to tie the sutures too tightly, with the result that the wound tends to invert. This causes discomfort and leads to self-mutilation. Following removal of these sutures it can be seen that the wound is healing poorly where the sutures have been placed. This wound was closed with cruciate mattress sutures. Whilst this is a popular pattern amongst inexperienced surgeons, there is a tendency to tie the sutures too tightly, with the result that the wound tends to invert. This causes discomfort and leads to self-mutilation. Following removal of these sutures it can be seen that the wound is healing poorly where the sutures have been placed.
Image of The closed wound is covered by a sterile adhesive dressing.
The closed wound is covered by a sterile adhesive dressing. The closed wound is covered by a sterile adhesive dressing.
Image of A normally healing ventral midline incision, viewed at the 48-hour postoperative check.
A normally healing ventral midline incision, viewed at the 48-hour postoperative check. A normally healing ventral midline incision, viewed at the 48-hour postoperative check.
Image of The dog is positioned in dorsal recumbency, with the legs splayed.
The dog is positioned in dorsal recumbency, with the legs splayed. The dog is positioned in dorsal recumbency, with the legs splayed.
Image of Hair has been removed only over the site of the incision. A broad border, including the inguinal region and scrotum, has been prepared with skin disinfectant.
Hair has been removed only over the site of the incision. A broad border, including the inguinal region and scrotum, has been prepared with skin disinfectant. Hair has been removed only over the site of the incision. A broad border, including the inguinal region and scrotum, has been prepared with skin disinfectant.
Image of The left hand is used to squeeze the testicle cranially to the scrotum, and the skin is incised in the midline directly over the displaced testicle. The dog’s head is to the right.
The left hand is used to squeeze the testicle cranially to the scrotum, and the skin is incised in the midline directly over the displaced testicle. The dog’s head is to the right. The left hand is used to squeeze the testicle cranially to the scrotum, and the skin is incised in the midline directly over the displaced testicle. The dog’s head is to the right.
Image of The left hand maintains pressure on the skin over the testicle, so that the spermatic sac bulges through the incision. The dog’s head is to the right.
The left hand maintains pressure on the skin over the testicle, so that the spermatic sac bulges through the incision. The dog’s head is to the right. The left hand maintains pressure on the skin over the testicle, so that the spermatic sac bulges through the incision. The dog’s head is to the right.
Image of The testicle is exposed and the sac everted. The dog’s head is to the left.
The testicle is exposed and the sac everted. The dog’s head is to the left. The testicle is exposed and the sac everted. The dog’s head is to the left.
Image of The tunic is separated from the spermatic cord by traction. It is helpful to use a swab to aid grip. The dog’s head is to the left.
The tunic is separated from the spermatic cord by traction. It is helpful to use a swab to aid grip. The dog’s head is to the left. The tunic is separated from the spermatic cord by traction. It is helpful to use a swab to aid grip. The dog’s head is to the left.
Image of Paired clamps are placed. The dog’s head is to the left.
Paired clamps are placed. The dog’s head is to the left. Paired clamps are placed. The dog’s head is to the left.
Image of The ligature is placed proximal to the clamps. The dog’s head is to the left.
The ligature is placed proximal to the clamps. The dog’s head is to the left. The ligature is placed proximal to the clamps. The dog’s head is to the left.
Image of The clamps are sheared apart and the pedicle inspected for haemorrhage before it is released. The dog’s head is to the left.
The clamps are sheared apart and the pedicle inspected for haemorrhage before it is released. The dog’s head is to the left. The clamps are sheared apart and the pedicle inspected for haemorrhage before it is released. The dog’s head is to the left.
Image of The skin is closed with two layers of sutures, here placed subcutaneously. The dog’s head is to the right.
The skin is closed with two layers of sutures, here placed subcutaneously. The dog’s head is to the right. The skin is closed with two layers of sutures, here placed subcutaneously. The dog’s head is to the right.

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