Urogenital system and reproductive disease

image of Urogenital system and reproductive disease
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Rabbits are frequently presented to the veterinary clinic with signs of urogenital disease. This chapter aims to demonstrate how urogenital disease in rabbits can be investigated and managed by using the same approach as that used in other small animals. Relevant species differences, normal reference values and considerations are also covered.

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13.1 Normal rabbit urine sediment can be seen in these three urine samples. Note the variation in appearance of this sediment on visual inspection.
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13.4 A kidney from a rabbit with encephalitozoonosis. Typical lesions appear as focal, irregular, depressed areas.
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13.5 Urethral catheterization and drainage of urine with sediment in a male rabbit presented with lower urinary tract signs.
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13.6 Lateral abdominal radiograph showing a double-contrast pneumocystogram. The ureter is also outlined and its irregular course suggests spasmodic flow, inflammation of the ureteral mucosa or the presence of small ureteroliths within the ureter.
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13.7 Severe obesity in this rabbit caused secondary urine scalding as the vulva was covered by the large skin fold. The vulva can now be seen in the rabbit after corrective surgery, and the urine scalding has been resolved.
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13.9 Rabbit uterine adenocarcinoma after surgical removal.
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13.10 Lateral abdominal radiograph of rabbit with large uterine mass (B), displacing the bladder (A) cranioventrally. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and cytology confirmed the mass to be a uterine adenocarcinoma. Note the normal radiodense urine sediment in the bladder.
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13.11 Hydrometra in a rabbit. The rabbit was in overt good health at the time of surgery. (Courtesy of the University of Newcastle)
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13.12 A rabbit with acute haematuria. The main differential diagnoses would be endometrial aneurysm and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.
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13.13 The testicle on the left of the picture is neoplastic. For comparison, the testicle shown on the right is normal. (Courtesy of Dr Paolo Selleri)
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13.14 infection can cause testicular lesions.
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