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Dental and oral surgery

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Abstract

With advanced techniques for dental and oral soft tissue surgery in cats and dogs, the challenge for the anaesthetist is to maintain patient safety while ensuring effective control of pain. This chapter describes the analgesia options for patients undergoing dental or oral surgery, discusses specific concerns relating to different patient groups and potential complications, and outlines factors for veterinary surgeons (veterinarians) to consider in relation to anaesthesia for both standard and more advanced procedures.

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Figures

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20.2 A dental cartridge containing local anaesthetic.
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20.3 Diagram illustrating relevant nerves and needle positions for local anaesthetic blocks during dental and oral procedures in the dog. (© Juliane Deubner, University of Saskatchewan, Canada)
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20.4 Diagram illustrating relevant nerves and needle positions for local anaesthetic blocks during dental and oral procedures in the cat. (© Juliane Deubner, University of Saskatchewan, Canada)
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20.5 Extraoral approach for the maxillary nerve block in the dog.
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20.6 Extraoral approach for the maxillary nerve block in the cat.
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20.7 Intraoral approach for the maxillary nerve block in the cat.
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20.8 Approach for the infraorbital nerve block in the dog.
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20.9 Approach for the infraorbital nerve block in the cat.
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20.10 Approach for the palatine nerve block in the dog.
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20.11 Intraoral approach for the mandibular nerve block in a cat.
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20.12 Extraoral approach for the mandibular nerve block (a–b) in the dog and (c) in the cat.
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20.13 Approach for the mental nerve block in the dog.
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20.14 For difficult endotracheal intubations, a stylet can be used to guide the endotracheal tube into the trachea.
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20.15 End of a pharyngeal throat pack secured to the endotracheal tube.
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20.16 (a) An adaptor attached to the end of a short endotracheal tube enables assessment of jaw occlusion without the need for extubation. (b) For assessment of jaw occlusion, the adaptor is temporarily removed.
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20.17 A length of drip tubing used to secure the endotracheal tube.
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20.18 Open-weave bandage used to secure the endotracheal tube, soaked with blood and fluid.
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20.19 A needle cap used as a single-use alternative to a spring-held mouth gag to avoid overextension of the jaws.

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