Disorders of plasma proteins

image of Disorders of plasma proteins
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Plasma protein abnormalities are associated with a wide variety of disease processes and are a significant biochemical finding in both dogs and cats. The proteins are comprised of albumin, globulin and fibrinogen fractions. The chapter considers methods of measuring protein, serum protein electrophoresis, functions of plasma proteins, hyperproteinaemia, hypoproteinaemia and acute phase proteins. The chapter also includes case studies.

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7.3 Serum protein electrophoresis trace from a healthy dog.
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7.5 Serum protein electrophoresis trace showing a polyclonal response typical of an inflammatory or infectious hyperglobulinaemia. Note the broad-based peaks in the β and γ regions of the trace.
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7.6 Immunoelectrophoresis being used to differentiate a monoclonal gammopathy from a restricted polyclonal gammopathy. Anti-kappa and anti-lambda antibodies are loaded into the trough; following incubation these diffuse through the gel. An arc of precipitation forms where the antibody binds to the patient’s globulin. In this case a single precipitation arc has formed, indicating a monoclonal gammopathy.
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7.8 Serum protein electrophoresis trace from a Boxer with an intervertebral disc herniation. The total globulin was within normal limits; however, there was a peak in the α-globulins, probably indicating an acute phase response with an increase in haptoglobin.
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7.9 Bone marrow cytology from a dog with multiple myeloma. Note the large, occasionally binucleate plasma cells with only occasional red cell precursors. (Modified Wright’s stain; original magnification X1000)
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7.10 Serum protein electrophoresis trace from a 6-year-old neutered male terrier cross diagnosed with multiple myeloma. There is a monoclonal spike in the γ region of the electrophoretogram. (Courtesy of Claire Crompton, CTDS Lab)
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7.13 Single radial immunodiffusion technique for quantifying immunoglobulins. (Courtesy of Kathleen Tennant, University of Bristol)
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7.14 Relative variations in acute phase protein (APP) concentrations in response to an inflammatory stimulus.
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7.16 Serum protein electrophoresis trace. (Courtesy of Jo Morris, University of Glasgow)
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7.17 Graph of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin and neutrophil counts over time. Values are expressed as multiples of the upper limit of the normal range (denoted by the solid line).
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