Blood gas analysis and acid–base disorders

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Acid-base disturbances are common, and can have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality if unrecognized or if treated inappropriately. Blood gas analysiscan be used to assess a patient’s acid-base status and also the oxygenation of the blood. This chapter discusses buffering, blood gas analysis, simple acid-base disorders, responses to acid-base disturbances, evaluation of samples, blood gas analysis in respiratory patients, effects of blood gas disturbances on other analytes and mixed acid base disturbances. The chapter includes case examples.

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9.3 Benchtop blood gas analyser.
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9.4 Two examples of hand-held blood gas analysers. (Courtesy of Woodley Equipment Company Limited)
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9.5 Sampling for blood gas analysis from the dorsal pedal artery.
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9.12 Oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve. Note the almost linear relationship between O and O at O values <60 mmHg.
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