Bone development and physiology

image of Bone development and physiology
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From a surgeon’s perspective, it is easy to think of bone as an inert, lifeless, rigid structure. This is not the case; bone must be considered both as a living, elastic tissue and as a complex organ with a range of biological functions and diverse interactions with other organ systems. This chapter considers bone embryology; bone growth; bone remodelling; mechanobiology; non-mechanical influences on bone structure; calcium regulatory pathways.

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3.2 Mediolateral radiograph of a juvenile canine tibia demonstrating the main anatomical components of long bones.
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3.3 (a) Schematic representation of endochondral bone development. This begins with the formation of a mesenchymal condensation, expressing type II collagen (blue). Centrally, cells differentiate into chondrocytes, which hypertrophy and express type X collagen (purple). Progression to the mature growth plate accompanies development of the perichondrium (yellow), vascular invasion and the formation of a centre of ossification containing type I collagen-expressing osteoblasts (yellow). (b) Schematic representation of intramembranous bone development. Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells expressing a transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation, (also known as RUNX2; pink). Osteoprogenitor cells progress to mature osteoblasts that express and (yellow These cells deposit and mineralize bone matrix. Osteoblasts either die by apoptosis or are embedded in the matrix, becoming osteocytes. (Reproduced from with permission from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press and the authors)
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3.4 Histological stages in limb, long bone and epiphyseal development. (Modified from with permission from )
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3.5 Mediolateral radiograph of the proximal tibia of an adult dog. The fine ‘lace-like’ trabecular pattern is visible with clear lines of orientation parallel with lines of mechanical tension within the bone.
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3.6 Flowchart illustrating the major mechanisms of calcium homeostasis and endocrine control pathways. PTH = parathyroid hormone; RANKL–OPC = receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand–osteoprotegerin.
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