image of Foxes
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Red foxes are highly resourceful and have an opportunistic diet, which allow them to occupy a wide variety of rural and urban habitats. Common reasons for the presentation of foxes as wildlife casualties include orphaned and abandoned cubs, trauma and sarcoptic mange; red foxes are also a reservoir for several important diseases of humans and domestic animals, including rabies and tapeworm. This chapter covers: ecology and biology; anatomy and physiology; capture, handling and transportation; clinical assessment; first aid and hospitalization; anaesthesia and analgesia; specific conditions; therapeutics; husbandry; rearing of fox cubs; rehabilitation and release; and legal considerations.

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21.1 Red fox. © Paul Cecil
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21.2 Red fox cub development. ( ; dentition eruption patterns from )
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21.3 Teeth of a young adult red fox.
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21.4 Restraint of a red fox. (a) The fox will usually be lying pressed to the floor of a top-opening carrier. (b) A thick towel can be placed over the fox, and the neck area restrained through the towel. (Note: Lesions of sarcoptic mange are evident in this fox.)
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21.7 Hindlimb of red fox damaged by fencing (removed and shown to left). The animal was euthanased on account of this injury. (© Steve Bexton)
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21.8 Jaundice in a red fox evident on examination of the oral mucosa.
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21.9 Severe crusting sarcoptic mange on the hindlimb of a red fox.
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21.10 Red fox lungs showing typical pathology. (© Vic Simpson)
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21.11 Hydrocephalus in a red fox cub.
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