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Hospitalization and basic critical care

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Abstract

The first section of this chapter, on hospital setup for birds, covers emergency and hospital equipment, pharmacy, cages, biosecurity, heating, hospital treatment room setup for birds, feeding and nutrition of hospitalized birds. The second section, on emergency and critical care, covers hypothermia, fluid therapy, nutritional support, emergency medications, oxygen supplementation and air sac tube placement. The third section covers the specific emergencies of burns, oil contamination, hyperthermia, haemorrhage and animal bites, with guidance on when to perform blood transfusion and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

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/content/chapter/10.22233/9781910443323.chap11

Figures

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11.1 Emergency presentations. Bilateral peripheral paralysis in a lorikeet with confirmed lead poisoning. Dystocia in a Monk Parakeet with a collapsed retained egg. (© Deborah Monks)
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11.2 Autoclaved crop needles.
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11.3 This Budgerigar is being warmed by a heat lamp placed outside the cage.
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11.4 Cockatiel in a standard bird cage placed inside a hospital cage, providing extra protection and biosecurity.
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11.5 Cage with enclosed sides and small door with removable front, suitable for Budgerigars and Cockatiels.
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11.6 Lorikeet propped up on a towel.
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11.7 Small natural ‘boing’.
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11.8 Tail guard on a raptor. (© John Chitty)
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11.9 Peregrine Falcon tethered and hooded on a soft perch. (Courtesy of R J Doneley)
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11.10 Cockatiel with conjunctivitis caused by infection. Green watery faeces from a bird with infection; the red area indicates that the bird may also be passing blood.
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11.11 Cockatiel in a brooder.
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11.12 Appropriate examination room for birds.
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11.13 Commercial insectivore food pellets.
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11.14 Grevillea plant for nectar-eating birds. Melaleuca plant for native Australian species.
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11.15 Hulled seeds (left) compared with unhulled seeds (right).
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11.16 Syringe infusion pumps are used to give the low and precise flow rates required for continuous intravenous fluid therapy in birds.
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11.17 Administration of oral fluids. Inserting the crop needle into the oral cavity. Injection of the fluids into the crop. Removal of the now empty crop needle.
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11.18 Administration of subcutaneous fluids.
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11.20 Wing vasculature is useful for collecting blood samples for measurement of packed cell volume and as an alternative site for fluid therapy.
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11.21 Accessing the jugular vein for a bolus of intravenous fluids. Checking the needle is in the jugular vein prior to administration of the fluid bolus. Slow injection of the bolus of warmed intravenous fluids.
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11.22 Oral nutritional support being given via a crop needle.
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11.23 Temporary oxygen cage constructed using cling wrap.
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11.24 Air sac tube in place.
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11.25 Magpie covered in tar and oil. The tar and oil are removed in stages by warm bathing in dilute detergent, with the magpie under anaesthetic.
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11.26 Budgerigar with nail haemorrhage, a common clinical sign of hepatic-related coagulopathy.
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11.27 The volume of blood associated with bleeding nail tips may, on first appearance, seem to be large relative to the bird’s bodyweight. Birds can spread a small amount of blood widely in their cage.
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11.28 This macaw still requires some nutritional support several weeks after severe beak trauma.
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11.29 One broken feather may result in blood across the wing.
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11.30 Light pressure bandage for a traumatized bleeding wing.
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11.31 Blood transfusion. (Courtesy of RJ Doneley)
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11.32 Head trauma following attack by a cage mate.

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