Basic anaesthesia

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Anaesthesia is utilized for a variety of reasons in avian species. This chapter provides insight into the complex decision making process regarding when or when not to employ the use of anaesthesia as well as practical guidance on performing anaesthesia. : Avian intubation.

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16.1 The primary anaesthetist should be seated comfortably in a position with easy patient access and control; they should not be required to vacate this position during the procedure. Note the patient anaesthetic chart and anaesthesia controls to the right, emergency drugs are pre-drawn and there is easy access to the rebreathing bag for manual intermittent ventilation.
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16.2 During induction, a clear view of the patient can be aided by the use of clear facemasks. Good communication between the primary anaesthetist, on the left, and the designated helper, on the right, will function to improve patient safety and shorten the time between induction and the start of the planned procedure.
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16.3 Equipment used for avian anaesthesia. Modified T-piece breathing system, non-cuffed tubes and a selection of masks.
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16.4 When intubating, extend the tongue (beneath the left thumb) to enable best exposure of the laryngeal mound for placement of the endotracheal tube. This Yellow-naped Amazon is being anaesthetized for surgical biopsy of the lesion shown, which was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma.
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16.5 Surgical view of a tracheal stricture. This stricture was due to a plant foreign body and then granulation tissue, but intubation also carries a risk of tracheal stricture, usually seen 1–3 weeks after the procedure. Avoidance of inflating endotracheal tube cuffs, and careful attention to keep the patient’s neck straight during the procedure, should help reduce the risk of this complication, as well as avoiding chemical residues on the endotracheal tubes. (Courtesy of B Doneley)
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16.6 Intraosseous catheters are relatively easy and quick to place, and offer direct venous access in anaesthetized patients. This chicken has a 22 G spinal needle being placed in the left proximal tibiotarsus during the immediate post-induction period, in preparation for a surgical coeliotomy.
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16.7 The use of a Doppler ultrasound pulse monitor is invaluable when monitoring patients under anaesthesia. It provides continual ‘hands-free’ audible monitoring of the pulse of the patient. The Doppler monitor also facilitates the intraoperative monitoring of indirect blood pressure, further augmenting patient monitoring acuity. (Reproduced from )
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16.8 Indirect blood pressure can be a helpful trend to monitor during anaesthetic procedures. This hen has a Doppler probe placed over the ventral carpus and held in place with light pressure provided by two taped tongue depressors. The pressure cuff is placed about the mid-humeral region of the same wing, and a sphygmomanometer is attached to that.
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(© Deborah Monks) (© Deborah Monks)
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